Host genetic factors and environment factors including hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype are widely viewed as common basis of the different outcomes of HBV infection. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) plays an important role in immunological reaction to HBV infection.

The study aimed to explore whether the HLA-DQB1 allele polymorphisms are associated with the outcomes of HBV infection in the Chinese Han population.

One hundred and thirty-four asymptomatic HBV carriers and 139 chronic hepatitis B patients were recruited in this case-control study in Beijing, China.

Sequence-specific primers–polymerase chain reaction was used to detect 13 alleles of HLA-DQB1 gene. The frequency distributions of alleles in two groups were analysed using sas 9.1.2 software. After adjustment of confounders the frequencies of HLA-DQB1*0503 allele and *0303 allele in chronic hepatitis B group were statistically significant lower than those in asymptomatic HBV carrier group (P = 0.04; P = 0.05), and the frequency of exposure to alcohol consumption in patients with chronic hepatitis B was clearly higher than that in asymptomatic HBV carrier group (P = 0.004).

HLA-DQB1*0503 allele and *0303 allele are independently resistant genetic factors to chronic hepatitis B, and alcohol consumption is the risk factor of chronic hepatitis B.