To identify HLA-B*15 subtypes distribution in Han population in Beijing, People’s Republic of China, 826 unrelated healthy individuals were typed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing method. Within the 246 HLA-B*15 positive individuals, 29 HLA-B*15 alleles were identified, the most predominant of which is B*1501 (40.07%), followed by B*1502 (12.87%), B*1511 (12.87%), B*1518 (9.19%) and B*1532 (3.31%). The distribution of HLA-B*15 subtype frequencies was compared between the Beijing Han, eight other Chinese ethnic minorities and six Chinese populations covering the mainland of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. A neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree was constructed and revealed that the Beijing Han population clustered into the northern populations group and had a closer relationship with northern Han and Hui than with southern Han or other ethnic minorities. These results thus provide useful information that can be used in anthropology, selection for bone marrow transplantation as well as in disease-association study, such as in carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis.