Assessment of the infertile male
Correspondence: Stamatios Karavolos. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
- Male factors alone account for up to 30% of subfertile couples undergoing in vitro fertilisation.
- Male infertility may be due to problems with sperm production or transport and also sexual dysfunction. The underlying cause in most cases is idiopathic.
- Modifiable lifestyle factors can have an impact on male fertility, but medical treatments have a limited value in enhancing semen quality. Most treatments are based on assisted fertilisation techniques, rather than treatment of the underlying cause.
- The number and quality of sperm that can be recovered, either from the ejaculate or surgically, determines the available options for assisted conception.
- Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is considered relatively safe; however, because of the ability to bypass natural barriers to conception, there are concerns regarding its potential to transmit genetic defects.
- To review appropriate practice in the assessment and investigation of the infertile male.
- To critically appraise the currently available investigations for male fertility.
- To summarise the treatment options for subfertile men.
- Does ICSI propagate genetic causes of male infertility?
- Could there ever be a role for the use of artificial sperm in assisted reproduction?