Mechanical Restraint—Which Interventions Prevent Episodes of Mechanical Restraint?—A Systematic Review

Authors

  • Jesper Bak RN, SD, MPH, Stud. PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Jesper Bak, RN, SD, MPH, Stud. PhD, is a Head Nurse, Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Roskilde, Denmark; Mette Brandt-Christensen, MD, PhD, is Employed Senior Consultant, Forensic Psychiatric Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen, Denmark; Dorte Maria Sestoft, MD, PhD, is Head of Department, Ministry of Justice, Clinic of Forensic Psychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark; and Vibeke Zoffmann, RN, MPH, PhD, is a Senior Researcher, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
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  • Mette Brandt-Christensen MD, PhD,

    1. Jesper Bak, RN, SD, MPH, Stud. PhD, is a Head Nurse, Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Roskilde, Denmark; Mette Brandt-Christensen, MD, PhD, is Employed Senior Consultant, Forensic Psychiatric Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen, Denmark; Dorte Maria Sestoft, MD, PhD, is Head of Department, Ministry of Justice, Clinic of Forensic Psychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark; and Vibeke Zoffmann, RN, MPH, PhD, is a Senior Researcher, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
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  • Dorte Maria Sestoft MD, PhD,

    1. Jesper Bak, RN, SD, MPH, Stud. PhD, is a Head Nurse, Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Roskilde, Denmark; Mette Brandt-Christensen, MD, PhD, is Employed Senior Consultant, Forensic Psychiatric Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen, Denmark; Dorte Maria Sestoft, MD, PhD, is Head of Department, Ministry of Justice, Clinic of Forensic Psychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark; and Vibeke Zoffmann, RN, MPH, PhD, is a Senior Researcher, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
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  • Vibeke Zoffmann RN, MPH, PhD

    1. Jesper Bak, RN, SD, MPH, Stud. PhD, is a Head Nurse, Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Roskilde, Denmark; Mette Brandt-Christensen, MD, PhD, is Employed Senior Consultant, Forensic Psychiatric Centre Glostrup, Copenhagen, Denmark; Dorte Maria Sestoft, MD, PhD, is Head of Department, Ministry of Justice, Clinic of Forensic Psychiatry, Copenhagen, Denmark; and Vibeke Zoffmann, RN, MPH, PhD, is a Senior Researcher, Steno Diabetes Center, Gentofte, Denmark.
    Search for more papers by this author

Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Corrigendum Volume 48, Issue 3, 183–184, Article first published online: 25 June 2012

  • Conflict of Interest Statement

  • The authors report no actual or potential conflicts of interest. No external or intramural funding was received.

Author contact:jesper.bak@regionh.dk, with a copy to the Editor: gpearson@uchc.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:  To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints.

DESIGN AND METHODS:  Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect of intervention.

FINDINGS:  Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints.

PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:  There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints.

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