TOPIC: Youth face trauma that can cause posttraumatic stress (PTS).
PURPOSE: (1) To identify the family phenomena used in youth PTS research; and (2) to critically examine the research findings regarding the relationship between family phenomena and youth PTS.
SOURCES: Systematic literature review in PsycInfo, PILOTS, CINAHL, and MEDLINE. Twenty-six empirical articles met inclusion criteria.
CONCLUSION: Measurement of family phenomena included family functioning, support, environment, expressiveness, relationships, cohesion, communication, satisfaction, life events related to family, parental style of influence, and parental bonding. Few studies gave clear conceptualization of family or family phenomena. Empirical findings from the 26 studies indicate inconsistent empirical relationships between family phenomena and youth PTS, although a majority of the prospective studies support a relationship between family phenomena and youth PTS. Future directions for leadership by psychiatric nurses in this area of research and practice are recommended.