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This paper presents an overview of a useful approach for theory testing in the social sciences that combines the principles of psychometric meta-analysis and structural equations modeling. In this approach to theory testing, the estimated true score correlations between the constructs of interest are established through the application of meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990), and structural equations modeling is then applied to the matrix of estimated true score correlations. The potential advantages and limitations of this approach are presented. The approach enables researchers to test complex theories involving several constructs that cannot all be measured in a single study. Decision points are identified, the options available to a researcher are enumerated, and the potential problems as well as the prospects of each are discussed.