This study was partially funded by a University Research Council grant from DePaul University awarded to Alice F. Stuhlmacher. We thank Vicki Magley and the anonymous reviewers of this journal for helpful comments on earlier drafts of this manuscript. This study was presented at the 1999 Annual Conference of the Society of Industrial-Organizational Psychology in Atlanta, GA.
GENDER DIFFERENCES IN NEGOTIATION OUTCOME: A META-ANALYSIS
Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2006
Volume 52, Issue 3, pages 653–677, September 1999
How to Cite
STUHLMACHER, A. F. and WALTERS, A. E. (1999), GENDER DIFFERENCES IN NEGOTIATION OUTCOME: A META-ANALYSIS. Personnel Psychology, 52: 653–677. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.1999.tb00175.x
- Issue online: 7 DEC 2006
- Version of Record online: 7 DEC 2006
Studies reporting the objective settlements obtained by men and women in negotiations were reviewed. Differences in outcomes were expected due to differences in perceptions, behaviors, and contextual factors between men and women. In the sample of studies, men negotiated significantly better outcomes than women. Opponent sex, relative power of the negotiator, integrative potential of the task, mode of communication and year of the study were tested as moderators of the effect. Although the overall difference in outcomes between men and women was small, none of these hypothesized moderators or several exploratory moderators reversed or eliminated this effect. The organizational significance of the findings is discussed in terms of the glass ceiling, a gender-based earnings differential and women in negotiation positions. Directions for future research in the laboratory and the field are suggested.