IS EMOTIONAL LABOR MORE DIFFICULT FOR SOME THAN FOR OTHERS? A MULTILEVEL, EXPERIENCE-SAMPLING STUDY
Article first published online: 4 FEB 2009
© 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Volume 62, Issue 1, pages 57–88, Spring 2009
How to Cite
JUDGE, T. A., WOOLF, E. F. and HURST, C. (2009), IS EMOTIONAL LABOR MORE DIFFICULT FOR SOME THAN FOR OTHERS? A MULTILEVEL, EXPERIENCE-SAMPLING STUDY. Personnel Psychology, 62: 57–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2008.01129.x
- Issue published online: 4 FEB 2009
- Article first published online: 4 FEB 2009
In response to 2 areas for development in the emotional labor literature—(a) the contemporaneous associations between emotional labor and affective reactions, and (b) whether emotional labor might be more personally costly for some employees than others—this study tested a conceptual model explaining the differential effects of deep and surface acting on job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion via their asymmetrical influences on mood, and whether extraverts fare better when engaging in emotional labor. As expected, surface acting was positively associated with negative mood, and this explained some of the association of surface acting with increased emotional exhaustion and decreased job satisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, deep acting was unrelated to job satisfaction and was associated with lower positive affect. Extraversion moderated several emotional labor relationships such that, in general, surface and deep acting had more positive (or less negative) effects for extraverts (compared to introverts). Overall, the results support the importance of considering the roles of mood and disposition in the impact of emotional labor.