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SATISFACTION, CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIORS, AND PERFORMANCE IN WORK UNITS: A META-ANALYSIS OF COLLECTIVE CONSTRUCT RELATIONS

Authors


  • We are immensely grateful to Fred Morgeson and two insightful reviewers for their many helpful comments that greatly improved the manuscript. We are also very much indebted to Suzette Caleo, In-Sue Oh, Nathan Hiller, and Leslie DeChurch for their ideas and suggestions on earlier versions of this article.

and requests for reprints should be addressed to Daniel S. Whitman, University of Bridgeport, School of Business, Bridgeport, CT 06604; dwhitman@bridgeport.edu.

Abstract

This paper offers theoretical development clarifying the structure and function of collective job satisfaction and uses meta-analytic methods (k = 73) to examine the satisfaction–performance relationship when both constructs are construed at the work unit level. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between unit-level job satisfaction and unit-level performance is significant (ρ= .34). Specifically, significant relationships were found between unit-level job satisfaction and unit-level criteria, including productivity, customer satisfaction, withdrawal, and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Furthermore, the satisfaction-performance relationship was moderated by the strength of unit consensus, performance criteria, industry type, and whether the sample was U.S. based. Although these moderators were identified, collective satisfaction positively predicted performance across all levels of moderators. In addition, results indicate that unit-level OCB has a moderately strong relationship with unit-level performance. Only limited support was found for the notion that OCB is a route through which satisfaction has an impact on performance. We elaborate on these findings and attempt to provide a more clear direction for future research in this area.

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