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Keywords:

  • Biomass crop;
  • callus formation;
  • Erianthus arundinaceus;
  • micropropagation;
  • plant regeneration

Abstract

Erianthus arundinaceus (Retz.) Jeswiet is regarded as one of the most promising biomass crops because of its high-yield biomass and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. We investigated the frequencies of callus formation from seeds and leaf sheaths of E. arundinaceus under 25 culture conditions containing various concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). Callus formation from seeds was significantly affected by 2,4-D but not by BA. BA markedly inhibited callus formation from leaf sheaths, indicating that the pattern of the callus formation frequency in the tested media differed depending on the explant types. We showed that media containing 4.0 or 6.0 mg L−1 2,4-D effectively produced callus from both explants; medium containing 2.0 mg L−1 2,4-D was shown to be preferred for callus maintenance among the five tested subculture media. Plants were successfully regenerated on a hormone-free Murashige and Skoog medium, subsequently acclimatized and transplanted to an experimental field. To evaluate the genetic variability of the regenerated plants, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed in 31 regenerated plants with 17 primers. The result showed very few genetic changes among the regenerated plants in RAPD analysis. The present study demonstrated the establishment of the callus induction and plant regeneration system using seeds and leaf sheaths in E. arundinaceus, which contributed to the development of genetic engineering techniques for crop improvement.