*Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berks SL5 7PY, UK.
Sudden death of cocoa in Papua New Guinea associated with Phytophthora palmivora cankers invaded by bark beetles
Article first published online: 26 FEB 2008
Annals of Applied Biology
Volume 109, Issue 3, pages 535–543, December 1986
How to Cite
PRIOR, C. (1986), Sudden death of cocoa in Papua New Guinea associated with Phytophthora palmivora cankers invaded by bark beetles. Annals of Applied Biology, 109: 535–543. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7348.1986.tb03210.x
- Issue published online: 26 FEB 2008
- Article first published online: 26 FEB 2008
- Accepted 25 April 1986 Received 10 September 1985
An extensive survey in 1976-82 indicated that sudden death of cocoa was widespread in Papua New Guinea with losses up to 1% per month in trees over 10-yr-old, especially in neglected plantations. Over 95% trees affected had large Phytophthora palmivora canker lesions and over 90% of the cankers were invaded by bark beetles. In an intensive single year survey of one plot 18-8% of 69 healthy trees died. Ambrosiella spp., P. palmivora and Fusarium solani were isolated from wood surrounding beetle tunnels but only the last two caused extensive lesions when inoculated into the xylem of healthy trees. The evidence obtained indicated that the sudden death syndrome is initiated by P. palmivora cankers on trunks and main branches but bark beetles are a major contributory factor and fungi associated with their tunnels may contribute to the problem. There is a risk of further outbreaks of the disease as cocoa cultivars susceptible to P. palmivora continue to be planted.