During 1979 and 1980 the herbage yields of two permanent pastures and two temporary swards were compared. All four swards received 250 kg N/ha per yr. The invertebrate population of all four swards was studied. Pot-worms (Enchytraeidae) and some species with long life cycles, e.g. wireworms (Agriotes spp.) were more numerous in the permanent swards, but aerial species were more numerous in the temporary swards. A range of pesticide treatments was applied. At one temporary sward site, application of the broad-spectrum pesticide aldicarb increased total annual yield of herbage by 16% in 1979 and 33% in 1980. Insecticide application at the same site resulted in no increase in herbage yield in 1979 and 12% yield increase in 1980. At the other three sites no significant increases in total annual yield were recorded in either year, but there were significant responses at one harvest or more at every site.