• Phyllosphere fungi;
  • elevated CO2;
  • temperature;
  • flag leaves;
  • winter


The impact of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2, 600/700 μmol mol-1) and temperature (+ 4°C) on phyllosphere fungi colonising flag leaves of mini crops of winter wheat cv. Mercia between anthesis and harvest was determined in a computer-controlled environment facility in 1993 and 1994. In both years the total fungal populations (cm2 leaf) were found to have increased due to exposure to either elevated CO2 and elevated CO2+ temperature treatments. This was mainly due to significant increases in populations of Cladosporium spp. (C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum) on the flag leaves during ripening. Other phyllosphere component species such as white and pink yeasts were not markedly affected by treatments. The range of fungal species found in such controlled environment chambers was narrower than that commonly found on flag leaves of field grown crops. Common and important colonisers of leaves and ripening ears such as Aureobasidium pullulans, Epicoccum nigrum and Fusarium spp. were seldom isolated.