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Detection and Analysis of Crack Propagation in PZT Multilayer Ceramics



The flaw propagation in Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multilayer ceramics under mechanical load was examined using impedance spectroscopy and three-point bending studies. Initial flaws were generated by applying a positive sinusoidal electric field to the specimens. The cracks were sequentially propagated and after the release of the external mechanical load, impedance spectroscopy was conducted. The shift in the resonance frequencies and the subresonance height of the impedance spectroscopy were used as a measure of flaw extension. A functional dependence of the resonance frequency and the phase shift on the crack length was found. The crack propagation was studied on flaws starting at the positive and negative electrode, respectively. The maximum fracture strength, as well as the crack path, depends on the electrode potential. The variation in the fracture strength was caused by different observed fracture mode: interface cracking, matrix-cracking, or a combination of both. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was ascribed to a textured microstructure, which is created by the sample processing, for example, by the poling process. A modified poling procedure with a lower poling temperature was analyzed, which yielded a reduction of the anisotropy of the electrode strength. Impedance spectroscopy was found to be a reliable measurement tool for automated flaw detection in PZT multilayer ceramics.