The mullite ceramic/fiber brick system was bonded by two kinds of phosphate adhesives. The specimens were treated from 200 to 1400°C. The mechanical properties were tested at room temperature and at high temperature, and the relevant bonding mechanism was also discussed. The results show that the addition of silicon can greatly improve the adhesive's mechanical properties. The room-temperature shear strength of the component bonded by adhesive with the silicon calcined at 800°C can reach 6.58 MPa. The shear strength of the adhesive with silicon tested at 800°C can reach 0.42 MPa.