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Keywords:

  • Gastropoda;
  • Mollusca;
  • phylogenetics;
  • parsimony;
  • maximum likelihood

Abstract. The phylogenetic relationships among the “archaeogastropod” clades Patellogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Neritimorpha, and Neomphalina are uncertain; the phylogenetic placement of these clades varies across different analyses, and particularly among those using morphological characteristics and those relying on molecular data. This study explores the relationships among these groups using a combined analysis with seven molecular loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, histone H3, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI], myosin heavy-chain type II, and elongation factor-1α [EF-1α]) sequenced for 31 ingroup taxa and eight outgroup taxa. The deep evolutionary splits among these groups have made resolution of stable relationships difficult, and so EF-1α and myosin are used in an attempt to re-examine these ancient radiation events. Three phylogenetic analyses were performed utilizing all seven genes: a single-step direct optimization analysis using parsimony, and two-step approaches using parsimony and maximum likelihood. A single-step direct optimization parsimony analysis was also performed using only five molecular loci (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, histone H3, 16S rRNA, and COI) in order to determine the utility of EF-1α and myosin in resolving deep relationships. In the likelihood and POY optimal phylogenetic analyses, Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Neritimorpha, Neomphalina, and Patellogastropoda were monophyletic. Additionally, Neomphalina and Pleurotomariidae fell outside the remaining vetigastropods, indicating the need for further investigation into the relationship of these groups with other gastropods.