Riboflavin-induced Priming for Pathogen Defense in Arabidopsis thaliana

Authors

  • Shujian Zhang,

    1. Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory, Group of Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Plant Pathogens and Insect Pests, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Xue Yang,

    1. Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory, Group of Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Plant Pathogens and Insect Pests, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Maowu Sun,

    1. Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory, Group of Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Plant Pathogens and Insect Pests, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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  • Feng Sun,

    1. Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory, Group of Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Plant Pathogens and Insect Pests, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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  • Sheng Deng,

    1. Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory, Group of Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Plant Pathogens and Insect Pests, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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  • Hansong Dong

    Corresponding author
    1. Plant Growth and Defense Signaling Laboratory, Group of Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Management of Plant Pathogens and Insect Pests, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
      *Author for correspondence.
      Tel: +86 25 8439 9006;
      Fax: +86 25 8439 5325;
      E-mail: <hsdong@njau.edu.cn>.
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  • Supported by the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (30525088), the State Key Basic Research and Development Plan of China (2006CB101902), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30771441), and the Hi-Tech Research and Development Program of China (2006AA10Z430).

*Author for correspondence.
Tel: +86 25 8439 9006;
Fax: +86 25 8439 5325;
E-mail: <hsdong@njau.edu.cn>.

Abstract

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) participates in a variety of redox processes that affect plant defense responses. Previously we have shown that riboflavin induces pathogen resistance in the absence of hypersensitive cell death (HCD) in plants. Herein, we report that riboflavin induces priming of defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana toward infection by virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst). Induced resistance was mechanistically connected with the expression of defense response genes and cellular defense events, including H2O2 burst, HCD, and callose deposition in the plant. Riboflavin treatment and inoculation of plants with Pst were neither active but both synergized to induce defense responses. The priming process needed NPR1 (essential regulator of systemic acquired resistance) and maintenance of H2O2 burst but was independent of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. Our results suggest that the role of riboflavin in priming defenses is subject to a signaling process distinct from the known pathways of hormone signal transduction.

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