Pretreatment of lower H2O2 doses (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM) for 24 h was able to dose-dependently attenuate lipid peroxidation in wheat seedling leaves mediated by further oxidative damage elicited by higher dose of H2O2 (150 mM) for 6 h, with 0.5 mM H2O2 being the most effective concentrations. Further results illustrated that 0.5 mM H2O2 pretreatment triggered the biphasic production of H2O2 during a 24 h period. We also noticed that only peak I (0.25 h) rather than peak II (4 h) was approximately consistent with the enhancement of heme oxygenase (HO) activity, HO-1 gene expression. Meanwhile, enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Mn-SOD and Cu,Zn-SOD transcripts might be a potential source of peak I of endogenous H2O2. Further results confirmed that 0.5 mM H2O2 treatment for 0.5 h was able to upregulate HO gene expression, which was detected by enzyme activity determination, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Meanwhile, the application of N,N’-dimethylthiourea, a trap for endogenous H2O2, not only blocked the upregulation of HO, but also reversed the corresponding oxidation attenuation. Together, the above results suggest that endogenous H2O2 production (peak I) plays a positive role in the induction of HO by enhancing its mRNA level and protein expression, thus leading to the acclimation to oxidative stress.