Lignin is a polymer of phenylpropanoid compounds formed through a complex biosynthesis route, represented by a metabolic grid for which most of the genes involved have been sequenced in several plants, mainly in the model-plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Populus. Plants are exposed to different stresses, which may change lignin content and composition. In many cases, particularly for plant-microbe interactions, this has been suggested as defence responses of plants to the stress. Thus, understanding how a stressor modulates expression of the genes related with lignin biosynthesis may allow us to develop study-models to increase our knowledge on the metabolic control of lignin deposition in the cell wall. This review focuses on recent literature reporting on the main types of abiotic and biotic stresses that alter the biosynthesis of lignin in plants.