Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are continuously produced as a result of aerobic metabolism or in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. ROS are not only toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism, but are also signalling molecules involved in several developmental processes in all organisms. Previous studies have clearly shown that an oxidative burst often takes place at the site of attempted invasion during the early stages of most plant-pathogen interactions. Moreover, a second ROS production can be observed during certain types of plant-pathogen interactions, which triggers hypersensitive cell death (HR). This second ROS wave seems absent during symbiotic interactions. This difference between these two responses is thought to play an important signalling role leading to the establishment of plant defense. In order to cope with the deleterious effects of ROS, plants are fitted with a large panel of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms. Thus, increasing numbers of publications report the characterisation of ROS producing and scavenging systems from plants and from microorganisms during interactions. In this review, we present the current knowledge on the ROS signals and their role during plant-microorganism interactions.