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Keywords:

  • Cell wall;
  • chemical genomics;
  • endomembrane trafficking;
  • trans-Golgi network;
  • vesicle proteomics

Abstract

The cell wall, a crucial cell compartment, is composed of a network of polysaccharides and proteins, providing structural support and protection from external stimuli. While the cell wall structure and biosynthesis have been extensively studied, very little is known about the transport of polysaccharides and other components into the developing cell wall. This review focuses on endomembrane trafficking pathways involved in cell wall deposition. Cellulose synthase complexes are assembled in the Golgi, and are transported in vesicles to the plasma membrane. Non-cellulosic polysaccharides are synthesized in the Golgi apparatus, whereas cellulose is produced by enzyme complexes at the plasma membrane. Polysaccharides and enzymes that are involved in cell wall modification and assembly are transported by distinct vesicle types to their destinations; however, the precise mechanisms involved in selection, sorting and delivery remain to be identified. The endomembrane system orchestrates the delivery of Golgi-derived and possibly endocytic vesicles carrying cell wall and cell membrane components to the newly-formed cell plate. However, the nature of these vesicles, their membrane compositions, and the timing of their delivery are largely unknown. Emerging technologies such as chemical genomics and proteomics are promising avenues to gain insight into the trafficking of cell wall components.

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[ Georgia Drakakaki (Corresponding author)]