SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams, T.K., Saydam, N., Steiner, F., Schaffner, W. and Freedman, J.H. (2002) Activation of gene expression by metal-responsive signal transduction pathways. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, 813817.
  • Alberts, B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K. and Walter, P. (2002) Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th ed. Garland Press, New York . 1463 pp.
  • Arnosti, D.N. (2002) Design and function of transcriptional switches in Drosophila. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 32, 12571273.
  • Auf der Maur, A., Belser, T., Elgar, G., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (1999) Characterization of the transcription factor MTF-1 from the Japanese pufferfish (Fugu rubripes) reveals evolutionary conservation of heavy metal stress response. Biological Chemistry, 380, 175185.
  • Bai, G., Stuebing, E.W., Parker, H.R., Harlow, P. and Nemer, M. (1993) Combinatorial regulation by promoter and intron 1 regions of the metallothionein SpMTA gene in the sea urchin embryo. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 13, 9931001.
  • Berg, M.P. (2007) De springstaarten van Nederland: het genus Orchesella (Hexapoda: Entognatha: Collembola). Nederlandse Faunistische Mededelingen, 26, 7793.
  • Berger, S.L. (2002) Histone modifications in transcriptional regulation. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, 12, 142148.
  • Bertin, G. and Averbeck, D. (2006) Cadmium: cellular effects, modifications of biomolecules, modulation of DNA repair and genotoxic consequences (a review). Biochimie, 88, 15491559.
  • Bi, Y.Y., Palmiter, R.D., Wood, K.M. and Ma, Q. (2004) Induction of metallothionein I by phenolic antioxidants requires metal-activated transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) and zinc. Biochemical Journal, 380, 695703.
  • Binz, P.A. and Kägi, J.H.R. (1999) Metallothionein: molecular evolution and classification. Metallothionein IV (ed. C.D.Klaassen), pp. 713. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel .
  • Bittel, D., Dalton, T., Samson, S.L.A., Gedamu, L. and Andrews, G.K. (1998) The DNA binding activity of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 is activated in vivo and in vitro by zinc, but not by other transition metals. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 273, 71277133.
  • Bonneton, F., Theodore, L., Silar, P., Maroni, G. and Wegnez, M. (1996) Response of Drosophila metallothionein promoters to metallic, heat shock and oxidative stresses. FEBS Letters, 380, 3338.
  • Bourdineaud, J.P., Baudrimont, M., Gonzalez, P. and Moreau, J. L. (2006) Challenging the model for induction of metallothionein gene expression. Biochimie, 88, 17871792.
  • Braeckman, B., Smagghe, G., Brutsaert, N., Cornelis, R. and Raes, H. (1999) Cadmium uptake and defense mechanism in insect cells. Environmental Research, 80, 231243.
  • Brasset, E. and Vaury, C. (2005) Insulators are fundamental components of the eukaryotic genomes. Heredity, 94, 571576.
  • Brugnera, E., Georgiev, O., Radtke, F., Heuchel, R., Baker, E., Sutherland, G.R. and Schaffner, W. (1994) Cloning, chromosomal mapping and characterization of the human metal-regulatory transcription factor MTF-1. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 31673173.
  • Carapelli, A., Nardi, F., Dallai, R. and Frati, F. (2006) A review of molecular data for the phylogeny of basal hexapods. Pedobiologia, 50, 191204.
  • Carroll, S.B. (2005) Evolution at two levels: On genes and form. PloS Biology, 3, 11591166.
  • Chen, W.Y., John, J.A.C., Lin, C.H. and Chang, C.Y. (2002) Molecular cloning and developmental expression of zinc finger transcription factor MTF-1 gene in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 291, 798805.
  • Cobbett, C. and Goldsbrough, P. (2002) Phytochelatins and metallothioneins: roles in heavy metal detoxification and homeostasis. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 53, 159182.
  • Craig, A., Hare, L. and Tessier, A. (1999) Experimental evidence for cadmium uptake via calcium channels in the aquatic insect Chironomus staegeri. Aquatic Toxicology, 44, 255262.
  • Cserjesi, P., Fairley, P. and Brandhorst, B.P. (1992) Functional analysis of the promoter of a sea-urchin metallothionein gene. Biochemistry and Cell Biology–Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire, 70, 11421150.
  • Cserjesi, P., Fang, H. and Brandhorst, B.P. (1997) Metallothionein gene expression in embryos of the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus. Molecular Reproduction and Development, 47, 3946.
  • Daborn, P.J., Yen, J.L., Bogwitz, M.R., Le Goff, G., Feil, E., Jeffers, S., Tijet, N., Perry, T., Heckel, D., Batterham, P., Feyereisen, R., Wilson, T.G. and Ffrench-Constant, R.H. (2002) A single P450 allele associated with insecticide resistance in Drosophila. Science, 297, 22532256.
  • Dallinger, R. (1996) Metallothionein research in terrestrial invertebrates: Synopsis and perspectives. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C–Pharmacology Toxicology & Endocrinology, 113, 125133.
  • Dallinger, R., Berger, B., Hunziker, P. and Kägi, J.H.R. (1997) Metallothionein in snail Cd and Cu metabolism. Nature, 388, 237238.
  • Dalton, T., Palmiter, R.D. and Andrews, G.K. (1994) Transcriptional induction of the mouse metallothionein-I gene in hydrogen peroxide-treated hepa cells involves a composite major late transcription factor antioxidant responsive element and metal response promoter elements. Nucleic Acids Research, 22, 50165023.
  • Dalton, T.P., Lio, Q.W., Bittel, D., Liang, L.C. and Andrews, G. K. (1996) Oxidative stress activates metal-responsive transcription factor-1 binding activity–Occupancy in vivo of metal response elements in the metallothionein-I gene promoter. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2623326241.
  • Dalton, T.P., Solis, W.A., Nebert, D.W. and Carvan, M.J. (2000) Characterization of the MTF-1 transcription factor from zebrafish and trout cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B–Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, 126, 325335.
  • Daniels, P.J., Bittel, D., Smirnova, I.V., Winge, D.R. and Andrews, G.K. (2002) Mammalian metal response element-binding transcription factor-1 functions as a zinc sensor in yeast, but not as a sensor of cadmium or oxidative stress. Nucleic Acids Research, 30, 31303140.
  • Dehal, P., Satou, Y., Campbell, R.K. et al. (2002) The draft genome of Ciona intestinalis: insights into the chordate and vertebrate origins. Science, 298, 21572167.
  • De Meaux, J., Goebel, U., Pop, A. and Mitchell-Olds, T. (2005) Allele-specific assay reveals functional variation in the chalcone synthase promoter of Arabidiopsis thaliana that is compatible with neutral evolution. Plant Cell, 17, 676690.
  • Domenech, J., Palacios, O., Villarreal, L., Gonzalez-Duarte, P., Capdevila, M. and Atrian, S. (2003) MTO: the second member of a Drosophila dual copper-thionein system. FEBS Letters, 533, 7278.
  • Donker, M.H. and Bogert, C.G. (1991) Adaptation to cadmium in three populations of the isopod Porcellio scaber. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C–Pharmacology Toxicology & Endocrinology, 100, 143146.
  • Dorsett, D. (1999) Distant liaisons: long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in Drosophila. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, 9, 505514.
  • Egli, D., Selvaraj, A., Yepiskoposyan, H., Zhang, B., Hafen, E., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (2003) Knockout of ‘metal-responsive transcription factor’ MTF-1 in Drosophila by homologous recombination reveals its central role in heavy metal homeostasis. EMBO Journal, 22, 100108.
  • Egli, D., Domenach, J., Selvaraj, A., Balamurugan, K., Hua, H. Q., Capdevila, M., Georgiev, O., Schaffner, W. and Atrian, S. (2006a) The four members of the Drosophila metallothionein family exhibit distinct yet overlapping roles in heavy metal homeostasis and detoxification. Genes to Cells, 11, 647658.
  • Egli, D., Yepiskoposyan, H., Selvaraj, A., Balamurugan, K., Rajaram, R., Simons, A., Multhaup, G., Mettler, S., Vardanyan, A., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (2006b) A family knockout of all four Drosophila metallothioneins reveals a central role in copper homeostasis and detoxification. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 26, 22862296.
  • Eide, D.J. (2001) Functional genomics and metal metabolism. Genome Biology, 2, reviews 1028.1–1028.3.
  • Farkas, G., Leibovitch, B.A. and Elgin, S.C.R. (2000) Chromatin organization and transcriptional control of gene expression in Drosophila. Gene, 253, 117136.
  • Feder, M.E. and Mitchell-Olds, T. (2003) Evolutionary and ecological functional genomics. Nature Reviews Genetics, 4, 649655.
  • Filser, J., Wittmann, R. and Lang, A. (2000) Response types in Collembola towards copper in the microenvironment. Environmental Pollution, 107, 7178.
  • Fountain, M.T. and Hopkin, S.P. (2001) Continuous monitoring of Folsomia candida (Insecta: Collembola) in a metal exposure test. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 48, 275286.
  • Frati, F., Fanciulli, P.P. and Posthuma, L. (1992) Allozyme variation in reference and metal-exposed natural populations of Orchesella cincta (Insecta, Collembola). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 20, 297310.
  • Freedman, J.H., Slice, L.W., Dixon, D., Fire, A. and Rubin, C.S. (1993) The novel metallothionein genes of Caenorhabditis elegans–Structural organization and inducible, cell-specific expression. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 268, 25542564.
  • Gamble, M.J.L.P.F. (2002) A coactivator code for transcription. Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 27, 165167.
  • Gesellchen, V. and Boutros, M. (2004) Managing the genome: microRNAs in Drosophila. Differentiation, 72, 7480.
  • Gilbert, S.F. (2005) Mechanisms for the environmental regulation of gene expression: Ecological aspects of animal development. Journal of Biosciences, 30, 6574.
  • Gillet, S. and Ponge, J.F. (2003) Changes in species assemblages and diets of Collembola along a gradient of metal pollution. Applied Soil Ecology, 22, 127138.
  • Girardot, F., Monnier, V. and Tricoire, H. (2004) Genome wide analysis of common and specific stress responses in adult Drosophila melanogaster. BMC Genomics, 5, 14712164/5/74.
  • Gompel, N., Prud'homme, B., Wittkopp, P.J., Kassner, V.A. and Carroll, S.B. (2005) Chance caught on the wing: cis-regulatory evoluion and the origin of pigment patterns in Drosophila. Nature, 433, 481487.
  • Groenendijk, D., Kraak, M.H.S. and Admiraal, W. (1999a) Efficient shedding of accumulated metals during metamorphosis in metal-adapted populations of the midge Chironomus riparius. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 18, 12251231.
  • Groenendijk, D., Van Opzeeland, B., Pires, L.M.D. and Postma, J.F. (1999b) Fluctuating life-history parameters indicating temporal variability in metal adaptation in riverine chironomids. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 37, 175181.
  • Haq, F., Mahoney, M. and Koropatnick, J. (2003) Signaling events for metallothionein induction. Mutation Research, 533, 211226.
  • Hensbergen, P.J., Donker, M.H., Hunziker, P.E., Van der Schors, R.C. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2001) Two metal-binding peptides from the insect Orchesella cincta (Collembola) as a result of metallothionein cleavage. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 31, 11051114.
  • Hensbergen, P.J., Donker, M.H., Van Velzen, M.J.M., Roelofs, D., Van der Schors, R.C., Hunziker, P.E. and Van Straalen, N. M. (1999) Primary structure of a cadmium-induced metallothionein from the insect Orchesella cincta (Collembola). European Journal of Biochemistry, 259, 197203.
  • Hensbergen, P.J., Van Velzen, M.J.M., Nugroho, R.A., Donker, M.H. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2000) Metallothionein-bound cadmium in the gut of the insect Orchesella cincta (Collembola) in relation to dietary cadmium exposure. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C–Pharmacology Toxicology & Endocrinology, 125, 1724.
  • Heuchel, R., Radtke, F., Georgiev, O., Stark, G., Aguet, M. and Schaffner, W. (1994) The transcription factor MTF-1 is essential for basal and heavy metal-induced metallothionein gene-expression. EMBO Journal, 13, 28702875.
  • Hoekstra, H.E. and Coyne, J.A. (2007) The locus of evolution: Evo devo and the genetics of adaptation. Evolution, 61, 9951016.
  • Hopkin, S.P. (1997) Biology of the Springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Oxford University Press, Oxford , 344 pp.
  • Hossain, Z.F.H. (2002) Studies on the interaction between Cd2+ ions and DNA. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry, 90, 8596.
  • Hsia, C.C.W.M. (2003) Evolution of transcription factor function. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, 13, 199206.
  • Hsieh, W.P., Passador-Gurgel, G., Stone, E.A. and Gibson, G. (2007) Mixture modeling of transcript abundance classes in natural populations. Genome Biology, 8, R98.
  • Humbert, W. (1978) Cytochemistry and X-ray microprobe analysis of the midgut of Tomocerus minor Lubbock (Insecta, Collembola) with special reference to the physiological significance of the mineral concretions. Cell and Tissue Research, 187, 397416.
  • Ivanov, P.A. and Nadezhdina, E.S. (2006) Stress granules: RNP-containing cytoplasmic bodies arising in stress: Structure and mechanism of organization. Molecular Biology, 40, 844850.
  • Jansen, R.C. and Nap, J.-P. (2001) Genetical genomics: the added value from segregation. Trends in Genetics, 17, 388391.
  • Janssens, T.K.S., Mariën, J., Cenijn, P., Legler, J., Van Straalen, N.M. and Roelofs, D. (2007) Recombinational micro-evolution of functionally different metallothionein promoter alleles from Orchesella cincta. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 7, 88.
  • Janssens, T.K.S., Del Rio Lopez, R., Mariën, J., Timmermans, M. J.T.N., Montagne-Wagner, K., Van Straalen, N.M. and Roelofs, D. (2008) Comparative population analysis of metallothionein promoter alleles suggests stress-induced micro-evolution in the field. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 38733878.
  • Jiang, H.M., Fu, K. and Andrews, G.K. (2004) Gene- and cell-type-specific effects of signal transduction cascades on metal-regulated gene transcription appear to be independent of changes in the phosphorylation of meta 1-response-element-binding transcription factor-1. Biochemical Journal, 382, 3341.
  • Jin, H.Y., Clark, A.B., Slebos, R.J.C., Al-Refai, H., Taylor, J.A., Kunkel, T.A., Resnick, M.A. and Gordenin, D.A. (2003) Cadmium is a mutagen that acts by inhibiting mismatch repair. Nature Genetics, 34, 326329.
  • Joosse, E.N.G. and Buker, J.B. (1979) Uptake and excretion of lead by litter-dwelling Collembola. Environmental Pollution, 18, 235240.
  • Kägi, J.H.R. (1991) Overview of metallothionein. Methods in Enzymology, 205, 613626.
  • Klerks, P.L. and Levinton, J.S. (1989) Rapid evolution of metal resistance in a benthic oligochaete inhabiting a metal-polluted site. Biological Bulletin, 176, 135141.
  • Klerks, P.L. and Weis, J.S. (1987) Genetic adaptation to heavy metals in aquatic organisms: a review. Environmental Pollution, 45, 173205.
  • Köhler, H.R. (2002) Localization of metals in cells of saprophagous soil arthropods (Isopoda, Diplopoda, Collembola). Microscopy Research and Technique, 56, 393401.
  • Korsloot, A., Van Gestel, C.A.M. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2004) Environmental Stress and Cellular Response in Arthropods. CRC Press, Boca Raton .
  • Laity, J.H. and Andrews, G.K. (2007) Understanding the mechanisms of zinc-sensing by metal-response element binding transcription factor-1 (MTF-1). Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 463, 201210.
  • LaRochelle, O., Gagne, V., Charron, J., Soh, J.W. and Seguin, C. (2001) Phosphorylation is involved in the activation of metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 in response to metal ions. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 4187941888.
  • Lauverjat, S., Ballan-Dufrançais, C. and Wegnez, M. (1989) Detoxification of cadmium. Ultrastructural study and electron-probe microanalysis of the midgut in a cadmium-resistant strain of Drosophila melanogaster. Biology of Metals, 2, 97107.
  • Lerman, D.N., Michalak, P., Helin, A.B., Bettencourt, B.R. and Feder, M.E. (2003) Modification of heat-shock gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster populations via transposable elements. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20, 135144.
  • Levine, M.R.T. (2003) Transcription regulation and animal diversity. Nature, 424, 147151.
  • Ludwig, M.Z. (2002) Functional evolution of noncoding DNA. Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, 12, 634639.
  • Ludwig, M.Z., Bergman, C., Patel, N.H. and Kreitman, M. (2000) Evidence for stabilizing selection in a eukaryotic enhancer element. Nature, 403, 564567.
  • Majumder, S., Kutay, H., Datta, J., Summers, D., Jacob, S.T. and Ghoshal, K. (2006) Epigenetic regulation of metallothionein-1 gene expression: Differential regulation of methylated and unmethylated promoters by DNA methyltransferases and methyl CpG binding proteins. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, 97, 13001316.
  • Mallat, J. and Giribet, G. (2006) Further use of nearly complete, 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 40, 772794.
  • Margoshes, M. and Vallee, B.L. (1957) A cadmium protein from equine kidney cortex. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79, 48134814.
  • Maroni, G., Ho, A.S. and Laurent, T. (1995) Genetic control of cadmium tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 11161118.
  • Maroni, G., Wise, J., Young, J.E. and Otto, E. (1987) Metallothionein gene duplications and metal tolerance in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics, 117, 739744.
  • Martinez, D.E. and Levinton, J. (1996) Adaptation to heavy metals in the aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri: Evidence for control by one gene. Evolution, 50, 13391343.
  • Michalak, P., Minkov, I., Helin, A., Lerman, D.N., Bettencourt, B.R., Feder, M.E., Korol, A.B. and Nevo, E. (2001) Genetic evidence for adaptation-driven incipient speciation of Drosophila melanogaster along a microclimatic contrast in “Evolution Canyon,” Israel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 1319513200.
  • Miles, A.T., Hawksworth, G.M., Beattie, J.H. and Rodilla, V. (2000) Induction, regulation, degradation, and biological significance of mammalian metallothioneins. Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 35, 3570.
  • Moilanen, L.H., Fukushige, T. and Freedman, J.H. (1999) Regulation of metallothionein gene transcription–Identification of upstream regulatory elements and transcription factors responsible for cell-specific expression of the metallothionein genes from Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 274, 2965529665.
  • Morgan, A.J., Kille, P. and Sturzenbaum, S.R. (2007) Microevolution and ecotoxicology of metals in invertebrates. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 10851096.
  • Nardi, F., Spinsanti, G., Boore, J.L., Carapelli, A., Dallai, R. and Frati, F. (2003) Hexapod origins: Monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science, 299, 18871889.
  • Nawrot, T., Plusquin, M., Hogervorst, J., Roels, H.A., Celis, H., Thijs, L., Vangronsveld, J., Van Hecke, E. and Staessen, J.A. (2006) Environmental exposure to cadmium and risk of cancer: a prospective population-based study. Lancet Oncology, 7, 119126.
  • Nemer, M., Stuebing, E.W., Bai, G. and Parker, H.R. (1995) Spatial regulation of SpMTA metallothionein gene-expression in sea urchin embryos by a regulatory cassette in intron 1. Mechanisms of Development, 50, 131137.
  • Nemer, M., Thornton, R.D., Stuebing, E.W. and Harlow, P. (1991) Structure, spatial, and temporal expression of two sea urchin metallothionein genes, SpMTB1 and SpMTA. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 266, 65866593.
  • Neumann, N.F. and Galvez, F. (2002) DNA microarrays and toxicogenomics: applications for ecotoxicology? Biotechnology Advances, 20, 391419.
  • Nguyen, T., Sherratt, P.J. and Pickett, C.B. (2003) Regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 43, 233260.
  • Osada, N., Kohn, M.H. and Wu, C.I. (2006) Genomic inferences of the cis-regulatory nucleotide polymorphisms underlying gene expression differences between Drosophila melanogaster mating races. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23, 15851591.
  • Otto, E., Young, J.E. and Maroni, G. (1986) Structure and expression of a tandem duplication in the Drosophila metallothionein gene. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 83, 60256029.
  • Palmiter, R.D. (1994) Regulation of metallothionein genes by heavy metals appears to be mediated by a zinc-sensitive inhibitor that interacts with a constitutively active transcription factor, MTF-1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 91, 12191223.
  • Pawert, M., Triebskorn, R., Graff, S., Berkus, M., Schulz, J. and Köhler, H.R. (1996) Cellular alterations in collembolan midgut cells as a marker of heavy metal exposure: Ultrastructure and intracellular metal distribution. Science of the Total Environment, 181, 187200.
  • Piola, R.F. and Johnston, E.L. (2006) Differential tolerance to metals among populations of the introduced bryozoan Bugula neritina. Marine Biology, 148, 9971010.
  • Posthuma, L. (1990) Genetic differentiation between populations of Orchesella cincta (Collembola) from heavy-metal contaminated sites. Journal of Applied Ecology, 27, 609622.
  • Posthuma, L., Hogervorst, R.F., Joosse, E.N.G., Van Straalen, N. M. (1993) Genetic variation and covariation for characteristics associated with cadmium tolerance in natural populations of the springtail Orchesella cincta (L.). Evolution, 47, 619631.
  • Posthuma, L., Hogervorst, R.F. and Van Straalen, N.M. (1992) Adaptation to soil pollution by cadmium excretion in natural populations of Orchesella cincta (L.) (Collembola). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 22, 146156.
  • Posthuma, L. and Van Straalen, N.M. (1993) Heavy metal adaptation in terrestrial invertebrates: a review of occurrence, genetics, physiology and ecological consequences. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part C–Toxicology & Pharmacology, 106, 1138.
  • Postma, J.F., Van Nugteren, P. and Buckert-de Jong, M.B. (1996) Increased cadmium excretion in metal-adapted populations of the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 15, 332339.
  • Poynton, H.C., Varshavsky, J.R., Chang, B., Holman, P.S., Loguinov, A.V., Bauer, D.J., Komachi, K., Theil, E.C., Perkins, E.J., Hughes, O. and Vulpe, C.D. (2007) Daphnia magna ecotoxicogenomics provides mechanistic insights into metal toxicity. Environmental Science and Technology, 41, 10441050.
  • Pradet-Balade, B., Boulme, F., Beug, H., Mullner, E.W. and Garcia-Sanz, J.A. (2001) Translation control: bridging the gap between genomics and proteomics? Trends in Biochemical Sciences, 26, 225229.
  • Purugganan, M.D. (2000) The molecular population genetics of regulatory genes. Molecular Ecology, 9, 14511461.
  • Radtke, F., Heuchel, R., Georgiev, O., Hergersberg, M., Gariglio, M., Dembic, Z. and Schaffner, W. (1993) Cloned transcription factor MTF-1 activates the mouse metallothionein-I promoter. EMBO Journal, 12, 13551362.
  • Rantalainen, M.L., Torkkeli, M., Strommer, R. and Setälä, H. (2006) Lead contamination of an old shooting range affecting the local ecosystem–A case study with a holistic approach. Science of the Total Environment, 369, 99108.
  • Rockman, M.V., Hahn, M.W., Soranzo, N., Zimprich, F., Goldstein, D.B. and Wray, G.A. (2005) Ancient and recent positive selection transformed opioid cis-regulation in humans. PLoS Biology, 3, 22082219.
  • Roelofs, D., Mariën, J. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2007) Differential gene expression profiles associated with heavy metal tolerance in the soil insect Orchesella cincta. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 37, 287295.
  • Roelofs, D., Overhein, L., De Boer, M.E., Janssens, T.K.S. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2006) Additive genetic variation of transcriptional regulation: metallothionein expression in the soil insect Orchesella cincta. Heredity, 96, 8592.
  • Roesijadi, G. (1992) Metallothioneins in metal regulation and toxicity in aquatic animals. Aquatic Toxicology, 22, 81114.
  • Ross, J. (1996) Control of messenger RNA stability in higher eukaryotes. Trends in Genetics, 12, 171175.
  • Sabourault, C., Guzov, V.M., Koener, J.F., Claudianos, C., Plapp, F.W. and Feyereisen, R. (2001) Overproduction of a P450 that metabolizes diazinon is linked to a loss-of-function in the chromosome 2 ali-esterase (Md alpha E7) gene in resistant houseflies. Insect Molecular Biology, 10, 609618.
  • Salice, C.J. and Roesijadi, G. (2002) Resistance to cadmium and parasite infection are inversely related in two strains of a freshwater gastropod. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 21, 13981403.
  • Saydam, N., Adams, T.K., Steiner, F., Schaffner, W. and Freedman, J.H. (2002) Regulation of metallothionein transcription by the metal-responsive transcription factor MTF-1. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 227, 2043820445.
  • Shapiro, M.D., Marks, M.E., Peichel, C.L., Blackman, B.K., Nereng, K.S., Jónsson, B., Schluter, D. and Kingsley, D.M. (2004) Genetic and developmental basis of evolutionary pelvis reduction in threespine sticklebacks. Nature, 428, 717723.
  • Shaw, J.R., Colbourne, J.K., Davey, J.C., Glaholt, S.P., Hampton, T.H., Chen, C.Y., Folt, C.L. and Hamilton, J.W. (2007) Gene response profiles for Daphnia pulex exposed to the environmental stressor cadmium reveals novel crustacean metallothioneins. BMC Genomics, 8, 477.
  • Shopland, L.S., Hirayoshi, K., Fernandes, M. and Lis, J.T. (1995) HSF access to heat-shock elements in vivo depends critically on promoter architecture defined by GAGA factor, TFIID and RNA-Polymerase-II binding-sites. Genes and Development, 9, 27562769.
  • Smale, S.T. and Kadonaga, J.T. (2003) The RNA polymerase II core promoter. Annual Review of Biochemistry, 72, 449479.
  • Smirnova, I.V., Bittel, D.C., Ravindra, R., Jiang, H.M. and Andrews, G.K. (2000) Zinc and cadmium can promote rapid nuclear translocation of metal response element-binding transcription factor-1. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 275, 93779384.
  • Spurgeon, D.J. and Hopkin, S.P. (2000) The development of genetically inherited resistance to zinc in laboratory-selected generations of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Environmental Pollution, 109, 193201.
  • Sterenborg, I. (2003) Molecular physiology of metal tolerance in Orchesella cincta. The role of metallothionein. PhD thesis, VU University, Amsterdam .
  • Sterenborg, I. and Roelofs, D. (2003) Field-selected cadmium tolerance in the springtail Orchesella cincta is correlated with increased metallothionein mRNA expression. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 33, 741747.
  • Sterenborg, I., Vork, N.A., Verkade, S.K., Van Gestel, C.A.M. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2003) Dietary zinc reduces uptake but not metallothionein binding and elimination of cadmium in the springtail, Orchesella cincta. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22, 11671171.
  • Stone, J.R. and Wray, G.A. (2001) Rapid evolution of cis-regulatory sequences via local point mutations. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 18, 17641770.
  • Stürzenbaum, S.R., Winters, C., Galay, M., Morgan, A.J. and Kille, P. (2001) Metal ion trafficking in earthworms. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 3401334018.
  • Stürzenbaum, S.R., Georgiev, O., Morgan, A.J. and Kille, P. (2004) Cadmium detoxification in earthworms: From genes to cells. Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 62836289.
  • Stürzenbaum, S.R., Kille, P. and Morgan, A.J. (1998) The identification, cloning and characterization of earthworm metallothionein. FEBS Letters, 431, 437442.
  • Swain, S.C., Keusekotten, K., Baumeister, R. and Stürzenbaum, S.R. (2004) C. elegans metallothioneins: New insights into the phenotypic effects of cadmium toxicosis. Journal of Molecular Biology, 341, 951959.
  • Timmermans, M.J.T.N., Ellers, J. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2007) Allelic diversity of metallothionein in Orchesella cincta (L.): traces of natural selection by environmental pollution. Heredity, 98, 311319.
  • Timmermans, M.J.T.N. (2005) On the “genetic erosion” hypothesis: Genetic variation in metal-stressed springtail populations. PhD thesis, VU University, Amsterdam .
  • Timmermans, M.J.T.N., Ellers, J., Mariën, J., Verhoef, S.C., Ferwerda, E.B. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2005a) Genetic structure in Orchesella cincta (Collembola): strong subdivision of European populations inferred from mtDNA and AFLP markers. Molecular Ecology, 14, 20172024.
  • Timmermans, M.J.T.N., Ellers, J., Roelofs, D. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2005b) Metallothionein mRNA expression and cadmium tolerance in metal-stressed and reference populations of the springtail Orchesella cincta. Ecotoxicology, 14, 727739.
  • Timmermans, M.J.T.N., Roelofs, D., Mariën, J. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2008) Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 8, 83.
  • Tranvik, L., Bengtsson, G. and Rundgren, S. (1993) Relative abundance and resistance traits of two Collembola species under metal stress. Journal of Applied Ecology, 30, 4352.
  • Valls, M., Bofill, R., Gonzalez-Duarte, R., Gonzalez-Duarte, P., Capdevila, M. and Atrian, S. (2001) A new insight into metallothionein (MT) classification and evolution–The in vivo and in vitro metal binding features of Homarus americanus recombinant MT. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 276, 3283532843.
  • Valls, M., Bofill, R., Romero-Isart, N., Gonzalez-Duarte, R., Abian, J., Carrascal, M., Gonzalez-Duarte, P., Capdevila, M. and Atrian, S. (2000) Drosophila MTN: a metazoan copper-thionein related to fungal forms. FEBS Letters, 467, 189194.
  • Van der Wurff, A.W.G., Gols, R., Ernsting, G. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2005) Population genetic structure of Orchesella cincta (Collembola; Hexapoda) in NW Europe, as revealed by microsatellite markers. Pedobiologia, 49, 167174.
  • Van der Wurff, A.W.G., Isaaks, J.A., Ernsting, G. and Van Straalen, N.M. (2003) Population substructures in the soil invertebrate Orchesella cincta, as revealed by microsatellite and TE-AFLP markers. Molecular Ecology, 12, 13491359.
  • Van Straalen, N.M. (1989) Production and biomass turnover in two populations of forest floor Collembola. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 39, 156168.
  • Van Straalen, N.M. and Roelofs, D. (2005) Cadmium tolerance in a soil arthropod–a model of real-time microevolution. Entomologische Berichten, 65, 105111.
  • Van Straalen, N.M. and Roelofs, D. (2006) An Introduction to Ecological Genomics. Oxford University Press, Oxford .
  • Van Straalen, N.M., Burghouts, T.B.A., Doornhof, M.J., Groot, G.M., Janssen, M.P.M., Joosse, E.N.G., Van Meerendonk, J. H., Theeuwen, J.P.J.J., Verhoef, H.A. and Zoomer, H.R. (1987) Efficiency of lead and cadmium excretion in populations of Orchesella cincta (Collembola) from various contaminated forest soils. Journal of Applied Ecology, 24, 953968.
  • Vatamaniuk, O.K., Bucher, E.A., Sundaram, M.V. and Rea, P.A. (2005) CeHMT-1, a putative phytochelatin transporter, is required for cadmium tolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 280, 2368423690.
  • Vatamaniuk, O.K., Bucher, E.A., Ward, J.T. and Rea, P.A. (2002) Worms take the ‘phyto’ out of “phytochelatins”. Trends in Biotechnology, 20, 6164.
  • Viarengo, A., Burlando, B., Ceratto, N. and Panfoli, I. (2000) Antioxidant role of metallothioneins: A comparative overview. Cellular and Molecular Biology, 46, 407417.
  • Vidal, D.E. and Horne, A.J. (2003) Inheritance of mercury tolerance in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 22, 21302135.
  • Walser, J.C., Chen, B. and Feder, M.E. (2006) Heat-shock promoters: Targets for evolution by P transposable elements in Drosophila. PLoS Genetics, 2, 15411555.
  • Wang, Y., Lorenzi, I., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (2004) Metal-responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) selects different types of metal response elements at low vs. high zinc concentration. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 385, 623632.
  • Warren, A.J. (2002) Eukaryotic transcription factors. Current Opinion in Structural Biology, 12, 107114.
  • Whalley, P. and Jarzembowski, E.A. (1981) A new assessment of Rhyniella, the earliest known insect, from the Devonian-of-Rhyne, Scotland. Nature, 291, 317.
  • Whitehead, A. and Crawford, D.L. (2006) Neutral and adaptive variation in gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 54255430.
  • Wittkopp, P.J. (2005) Genomic sources of regulatory variation in cis and in trans. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, 62, 17791783.
  • Wittkopp, P.J. (2007) Variable gene expression in eukaryotes: a network perspective. Journal of Experimental Biology, 210, 15671575.
  • Wittkopp, P.J., Haerum, B.K. and Clark, A.G. (2004) Evolutionary changes in cis and trans gene regulation. Nature, 430, 8588.
  • Wray, G.A. (2007) The evolutionary significance of cis-regulatory mutations. Nature Reviews Genetics, 8, 206216.
  • Wray, G.A., Hahn, M.W., Abouheif, E., Balhoff, J.P., Pizer, M., Rockman, M.V. and Romano, L.A. (2003) The evolution of transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 20, 13771419.
  • Zeng, J., Heuchel, R., Schaffner, W. and Kägi, J.H.R. (1991) Thionein (apometallothionein) can modulate DNA binding and transcription activation by zinc finger containing factor Sp1. FEBS Letters, 279, 310312.
  • Zhang, B., Egli, D., Georgiev, O. and Schaffner, W. (2001) The Drosophila homolog of mammalian zinc finger factor MTF-1 activates transcription in response to heavy metals. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 21, 45054514.
  • Zhang, B., Georgiev, O., Hagmann, M., Gunes, C., Cramer, M., Faller, P., Vasak, M. and Schaffner, W. (2003) Activity of metal-responsive transcription factor 1 by toxic heavy metals and H2O2in vitro is modulated by metallothionein. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 23, 84718485.