Assessment of the Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ transcript and protein levels in laboratory and field-derived imidacloprid-resistant insects and cross-metabolism potential of the recombinant enzyme

Authors

  • Emmanouil Roditakis,

    1. Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Plant Protection Institute of Heraklion, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Heraklion (N.AG.RE.F.), Heraklio, Greece
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    • Equal authors.

  • Evangelia Morou,

    1. Faculty of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Biology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
    2. Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
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    • Equal authors.

  • Anastasia Tsagkarakou,

    1. Laboratory of Entomology and Agricultural Zoology, Plant Protection Institute of Heraklion, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Heraklion (N.AG.RE.F.), Heraklio, Greece
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  • Maria Riga,

    1. Faculty of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Biology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
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  • Ralf Nauen,

    1. Bayer CropScience AG Research Insecticides Insect Toxicology and Resistance, Monheim, Germany
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  • Mark Paine,

    1. Vector Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK
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  • Shai Morin,

    1. Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel
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  • John Vontas

    1. Faculty of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Biology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
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John Vontas, Faculty of Applied Biology and Biotechnology, Department of Biology, University of Crete, 71409 Heraklion, Greece. Tel: +30 2810394077; fax: +30 2810394408; email: vontas@imbb.forth.gr

Abstract

Abstract  Over-expression of the cytochrome P450 CYP6CM1 gene has been associated with imidacloprid resistance in a number of Q and B biotype Bemisia tabaci laboratory strains from distinct geographical origins worldwide. We recently demonstrated that the Q biotype version of the CYP6CM1 protein (CYP6CM1vQ) is capable of metabolizing imidacloprid. Here, we show that the levels of BtCYP6CM1vQ were also elevated in laboratory-resistant strains and field-derived populations, with variable imidacloprid resistance levels, collected in Crete. High levels of CYP6CM1vQ transcripts were also determined in survivors of a heterogeneous field population, after exposure to discriminating imidacloprid dosage. Using peptide antibody-based detection assays, we demonstrated that in line with transcriptional data, the CYP6CM1vQ protein levels were higher in imidacloprid-resistant insects, which further implicates the gene as the causal factor of resistance. Finally, assessment of the cross-metabolism potential of CYP6CM1vQ against additional neonicotinoid molecules used for B. tabaci control revealed that clothianidin and thiacloprid, but not acetamiprid or thiamethoxam, are metabolized by the recombinant enzyme in vitro.

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