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Keywords:

  • Anoplophora glabripennis;
  • Asian longhorned beetle;
  • cuticular hydrocarbons;
  • kairomone;
  • oxidation;
  • pheromone

Abstract  Volatiles from female Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis, were evaluated as candidate sex pheromone components. Previous studies on ALB have revealed several antennally active compounds from virgin females; however the origins and activity of these compounds were not apparent and require further investigation. We tested the hypothesis that one or more of the ALB contact sex pheromones is a precursor that undergoes abiotic oxidation to yield volatile pheromone components, and evaluated the activity of these compounds using laboratory and field bioassays. Gas chromatography coupled electroantennography detection (GC-EAD) analysis indicated the presence of three antennally active aldehydes (heptanal, nonanal, and hexadecanal) in female cuticular extracts exposed to ozone or UV and visible light. In laboratory bioassays using a Y-tube olfactometer, males were preferentially attracted to ozonized female body washes over crude body washes. Similarly, synthetic formulations of these compounds were preferred over controls in the olfactometer. Field trapping experiments conducted from 2006 to 2008 in Ningxia, China showed that synthetic lures of the three aldehydes formulated in a ratio simulating that of virgin females attracted more beetles compared to controls, and that combinations of these aldehydes, linalool oxide, and host kairomones captured more beetles than controls, and captured significantly more males.