• adjustment;
  • cross-cultural training;
  • job performance;
  • language training

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among pre-departure cross-cultural training, post-arrival cross-cultural training, language training, expatriates’ adjustment (general, interaction, work), and job performance. Questionnaire data were collected from 114 expatriates and their supervisors, who evaluated the expatriate's job performance in Vietnam. The results indicates that pre-departure cross-cultural training, post-arrival cross-cultural training, and language training all are positively associated with general, interaction, and work adjustment ability. An expatriate's interaction and work adjustment have significant impacts on job performance; they partially mediate the relationship between training and job performance. Post-arrival cross-cultural training has the strongest impact on expatriate general and work adjustment. Language training is most significant for interaction adjustment. Of the three types, post-arrival cross-cultural training plays the most critical role in expatriate adjustment. Limitations and recommendations for future research are presented at the end of the paper.