Abstract: It has been reported that serum lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) levels in patients with restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were significantly higher than in patients without restenosis. In this study, we evaluated the preventive effect of LDL apheresis on restenosis after PTCA in patients with hypercholesterolemia. For 10 patients who had shown a serum cholesterol level of more than 220 mg/dl despite treatment with antihypercholesterolemic drugs, LDL apheresis was conducted every 2 weeks after a successful PTCA until restenosis could be checked. In 4 patients, LDL apheresis was conducted for 2 years. LDL apheresis significantly reduced serum cholesterol from 248 ± 22 mg/dl to 135 ± 26 mg/dl and Lp(a) from 42 ± 34 mg/dl to 21 ± 16 mg/dl. The average degree of stenosis in the 11 lesions undergoing PTCA was 92 ± 6% before PTCA, 35 ± 10% immediately after PTCA, and 38 ± 19% at 3 to 4 months after PTCA. Restenosis was observed in only 1 lesion. In 4 patients who received LDL apheresis for 2 years, restenosis did not occur in any of the 4 lesions treated. We concluded that LDL apheresis was an efficacious therapy to prevent restenosis after PTCA in patients with hypercholesterolemia.