Abstract: A statistical survey of 3750 nationwide dialysis facilities was carried out by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) at the end of 2003, with answers to the questionnaires received from 3717 facilities (99.12%). The population of dialysis patients in Japan at the end of 2003 was 237,710, and the number of dialysis patients per million people was 1862.7. The crude death rate during a 1-year period from the end of 2002 to the end of 2003 was 9.3%. The mean age of patients newly introduced to dialysis was 65.4 years, and the mean age of the entire dialysis population was 62.3 years. The primary diseases in the patients newly introduced to dialysis in 2003 included diabetic nephropathy (41.0% of patients) and chronic glomerulonephritis (29.1% of patients). The mean serum neutral fat concentration for all the dialysis patients was 113.9 ± 71.7 mg/dL (± SD). The mean serum low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration was 90.8 ± 30.9 mg/dL. Dialysate calcium concentrations ranging from 3.0 mEq/L to less than 3.5 mEq/L were used for majority of the dialysis patients (55.4%). Among anticoagulants given to the dialysis patients, heparins were the most commonly used in 79.3% of the dialysis patients. The relationship between blood pressure during dialysis and life expectancy for 1 year was analyzed for 43 465 patients who had undergone dialysis three times per week at the end of 2001. Results showed a significantly high mortality risk for patients who had systolic blood pressure of less than 100 mm Hg at the start of dialysis, systolic blood pressure of less than 100 mm Hg at the end of dialysis, and the greatest decrease (lowest) in systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg during dialysis. Patients who received vasopressor therapy during dialysis had a higher mortality risk than those who received no vasopressor therapy.