• Arteriovenous fistula;
  • Calcium channel antagonist;
  • Hemodialysis;
  • Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty;
  • Restenosis

Abstract:  Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for stenosis of hemodialysis fistulas is associated with a high incidence of restenosis, and improvement of the patency rate after PTA is greatly needed. In addition, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), calcium channel antagonists (CCA) and antiplatelet agents (APA) are commonly administered to most hemodialysis patients. This study retrospectively examined the effect of these medications on the incidence of restenosis after angioplasty for hemodialysis fistulae. The subjects were 92 patients—54 with anastomotic stenosis of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and 38 with stenosis of the draining veins of an arteriovenous graft (AVG)—who underwent angioplasty between January 2001 and December 2003. The patency period was defined as the interval from the first to the second angioplasty or surgical reconstruction. We excluded patients who received angioplasty two or more times. The effect of each drug on the patency of the AVF or AVG was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test and multiple logistic regression analysis. The group receiving CCA therapy showed a higher patency rate for both an AVF and an AVG. Although multiple logistic regression analysis also showed that a CCA reduces restenosis independently in an AVF, there was no significant correlation between a CCA and patency in an AVG. Treatment with an ARB and an APA was not associated with significantly higher patency rates for either an AVF or AVG. A CCA may reduce the incidence of restenosis after percutaneous intervention for stenosis of an AVF.