This longitudinal study investigated whether renal survival can affect the course and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients treated with chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Thirty-five SLE patients, out of 1115 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with chronic PD, were seen between 1990 and 2007 at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. Patients were followed up for a mean of 38.8 ± 22.9 months. There were no significant differences between patients with short renal survival (<3 years) and long renal survival (>3 years) for the various demographic variables such as age, sex, PD duration, immunosuppressive drug administration, or exchange system (P > 0.05). Interestingly, before PD, patients with short renal survival had lower serum complement levels than patients with long renal survival (C3, 40.2 ± 14.4 vs 76.3 ± 18.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001; and C4, 14.8 ± 4.7 vs 22.4 ± 8.1 mg/dL, P < 0.05). However, the differences in complement levels between the groups disappeared after PD (C3, 76.5 ± 27.3 vs 84.2 ± 27.8 mg/dL; and C4, 26.7 ± 11.3 vs 22.6 ± 10.8 mg/dL, both P > 0.05). Patients with short renal survival were more likely to have a high peritoneal solute transporter rate (PSTR) than their long renal survival counterparts (χ2-test, P = 0.02, and AUROC = 0.744 and P = 0.040); however, there were no significant differences for other variables such as cardiothoracic ratio (CTR), Kt/V, residual renal function, exit site infection, and peritonitis (P > 0.05). Finally, Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed that the two groups did not differ in patient and technical survival (P > 0.05). Therefore it was concluded that renal survival might be associated with PSTR, but not with patient and technical survival in SLE patients treated with PD.