• 1
    Vas SI. Microbiologic aspects of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Kidney Int 1983;23:8392.
  • 2
    Duwe AK, Vas SI, Weatherhead JW. Effects of the composition of peritoneal dialysis fluid on chemiluminescence, phagocytosis, and bactericidal activity in vitro. Infect Immun 1981;33:1305.
  • 3
    Diskin CJ, Coplon NS, Feldman C, Vosti K. The antimicrobial activity of patients on CAPD. Perit Dial Bull 1983;3:1504.
  • 4
    Leppänen H, Metsärinne KP, Nikoskelainen J, Tertti R. Three-year analysis of microbial aetiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of PD peritonitis. Scand J Infect Dis 2006;38:6459.
  • 5
    Diskin CJ. Peritoneal dialysis in patients with liver cirrhosis and/or ascites. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2006;118:43.
  • 6
    Diskin CJ. Immunology and the evaluation of risk factors for development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Dig Dis Sci 2008;53:11545.
  • 7
    Diskin CJ, Ho G Jr. The protective value of protein and complement in ascitic fluid. R I Med J 1981;64:5215.
  • 8
    Park RY, Sun HY, Choi MH, Bae YH, Shin SH. Growth of Staphylococcus aureus with defective siderophore production in human peritoneal dialysate solution. J Microbiol 2005;43:5461.
  • 9
    McDonald WA, Watts J, Bowmer MI. Factors affecting Staphylococcus epidermidis growth in peritoneal dialysis solutions. J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:1047.
  • 10
    Morton AR, Evans G, Shannon A, Zoutman D. Growth of coagulase negative staphylococci in peritoneal dialysate fluid. Effect of calcium concentration. ASAIO J 1994;40:M4314.
  • 11
    Fluornoy DJ, Perryman AJ, Qadri SMH. Growth of clinical isolates in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid. Perit Dial Bull 1983;3:1445.
  • 12
    Verbrugh HA, Keane WF, Conroy WE, Peterson PK. Bacterial growth and killing in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluids. J Clin Microbiol 1984;20:199203.
  • 13
    Sallam KI. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon. Food Control 2007;18:56675.
  • 14
    Simon A, Ammann RA, Wiszniewsky G, Bode U, Fleischhack G, Besuden MM. Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock) significantly reduces CVAD-associated gram-positive infections in pediatric cancer patients. BMC Infect Dis 2008;8:102.
  • 15
    Raad II, Fang X, Keutgen XM, Jiang Y, Sherertz R, Hachem R. The role of chelators in preventing biofilm formation and catheter-related bloodstream infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008;21:38592.
  • 16
    Skoufos L, Topley N, Cooker L et al. The in vitro biocompatibility performance of a 25 mmol/L bicarbonate/10 mmol/L lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid. Kidney Int Suppl 2003;88:S949.
  • 17
    Schröder CH; European Paediatric Peritoneal Dialysis Working Group. The choice of dialysis solutions in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis: guidelines by an ad hoc European committee. Perit Dial Int 2001;21:56874.
  • 18
    Salkowski E. Über die antiseptische Wirkung. Berl Klin Wochenschr 1875;12:2978.
  • 19
    Rudra JS, Dave K, Haynie DT. Antimicrobial polypeptide multilayer nanocoatings. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2006;17:130115.
  • 20
    Cagri A, Ustunol Z, Ryser ET. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings. J Food Prot 2004;67:83348.
  • 21
    Krebs HA, Wiggins D, Stubbs M, Sols A, Bedoya F. Studies on the mechanism of the antifungal action of benzoate. Biochem J 1983;214:65763.
  • 22
    Sallam KI. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon. Food Control 2007;18:56675.
  • 23
    Axe DD, Bailey JE. Transport of lactate and acetate through the energized cytoplasmic membrane of Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng 1995;47:819.
  • 24
    Phan-Thanh L. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the acid survival of Listeria monocytogenes. J Gen Appl Microbiol 1998;44:18391.
  • 25
    Roe AJ, O'Byrne C, McLaggan D, Booth IR. Inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by acetic acid: a problem with methionine biosynthesis and homocysteine toxicity. Microbiology 2002;148(Pt 7):221522.
  • 26
    Diez-Gonzalez F, Russell JB. The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to decrease its intracellular pH and resist the toxicity of acetic acid. Microbiology 1997;143(Pt 4):117580.
  • 27
    Steiner P, Sauer U. Overexpression of the ATP-dependent helicase RecG improves resistance to weak organic acids in Escherichia coli. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2003;63:2939.
  • 28
    Lasko DR, Zamboni N, Sauer U. Bacterial response to acetate challenge: a comparison of tolerance among species. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2000;54:2437.
  • 29
    Fukaya M, Takemura H, Okumura H, Kawamura Y, Horinouchi S, Beppu T. Cloning of genes responsible for acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti. J Bacteriol 1990;172:2096104.
  • 30
    Nakano S, Fukaya M. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol 2008;125:549.
  • 31
    Mullins EA, Francois JA, Kappock TJ. A specialized citric acid cycle requiring succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA): acetate CoA-transferase (AarC) confers acetic acid resistance on the acidophile Acetobacter aceti. J Bacteriol 2008;190:493340.
  • 32
    Carlsson J, Hamilton IR. Differential toxic effects of lactate and acetate on the metabolism of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. Oral Microbiol Immunol 1996;11:41219.
  • 33
    Olszowska A, Waniewski J, Werynski A, Anderstam B, Lindholm B, Wankowicz Z. Peritoneal transport in peritoneal dialysis patients using glucose-based and amino acid-based solutions. Perit Dial Int 2007;27:54453.
  • 34
    Jamison RL, Hartigan P, Kaufman JS et al.; Veterans Affairs Site Investigators. Effect of homocysteine lowering on mortality and vascular disease in advanced chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2007;298:116370.
  • 35
    Yomano LP, York SW, Zhou S, Shanmugam KT, Ingram LO. Re-engineering Escherichia coli for ethanol production. Biotechnol Lett 2008;30:2097103.
  • 36
    Kubota H, Senda S, Nomura N, Tokuda H, Uchiyama H. Biofilm formation by lactic acid bacteria and resistance to environmental stress. J Biosci Bioeng 2008;106:3816.
  • 37
    Andersen AZ, Carvalho AL, Neves AR, Santos H, Kummer U, Olsen LF. The metabolic pH response in Lactococcus lactis: an integrative experimental and modeling approach. Comput Biol Chem 2009;33:7183 August 14 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 38
    Dashper SG, Reynolds EC. Effects of organic acid anions on growth, glycolysis, and intracellular pH of oral streptococci. J Dent Res 2000;79:906.
  • 39
    Ferreira A, Sue D, O'Byrne CP, Boor KJ. Role of Listeria monocytogenes sigma(B) in survival of lethal acidic conditions and in the acquired acid tolerance response. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003;69:26928.
  • 40
    Abbott DA, Suir E, Van Maris AJ, Pronk JT. Physiological and transcriptional responses to high concentrations of lactic acid in anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 2008;74:575968.
  • 41
    Li J, Zhong H, Zhang K, Chen Y, Xu P. Effect of dialysates on ultrastructure of mouse peritoneal mesothelium. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 1999;21:20813.
  • 42
    Pusateri R, Ross R, Marshall R, Meredith JH, Hamilton RW. Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: report of a case with small bowel obstruction managed by long-term home parenteral hyperalimentation, and a review of the literature. Am J Kidney Dis 1986;8:5660.
  • 43
    Witowski J, Ksiazek K, Jorres A. New insights into the biology of peritoneal mesothelial cells: the roles of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cellular senescence. Nephron Exp Nephrol 2008;108:e6973.
  • 44
    Soria M, Arrieta J, Ugarte I, Moina I, Guerra M, Escanero J. Intracellular pH changes induced by sclerosing agents in peritoneal fibroblasts. Nefrologia 2004;24:15866.
  • 45
    Sun J, Bi L, Chi Y, Aoki K, Misumi J. Effect of sodium acetate on cell proliferation and induction of proinflammatory cytokines: a preliminary evaluation. Food Chem Toxicol 2005;43:177380.
  • 46
    Ruiz CM, Gomes JC. Effects of ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetic acid on histamine secretion in guinea pig lung mast cells. Alcohol 2000;20:1338.
  • 47
    Fougeray S, Slingeneyer A, Bastide JM, Mion C, Bastide M. Dialysis solutions buffered with lactate or bicarbonate: in vitro comparison of two dialysis solutions on human peritoneal cell growth from ESRD and non-ESRD patients. Adv Perit Dial 1994;10:23540.
  • 48
    Yáñez-Mó M, Lara-Pezzi E, Selgas R et al. Peritoneal dialysis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells. N Engl J Med 2003;348:40313.
  • 49
    Ksiazek K, Jörres A, Witowski J. Senescence induces a proangiogenic switch in human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Rejuvenation Res 2008;11:6813.
  • 50
    Ksiazek K, Piatek K, Witowski J. Impaired response to oxidative stress in senescent cells may lead to accumulation of DNA damage in mesothelial cells from aged donors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008;373:3359.
  • 51
    Ksiazek K, Passos JF, Olijslagers S, Saretzki G, Martin-Ruiz C, Von Zglinicki T. Premature senescence of mesothelial cells is associated with non-telomeric DNA damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007;362:70711.
  • 52
    Oulès R, Challah S, Brunner FP. Case-control study to determine the cause of sclerosing peritoneal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1988;3:669.
  • 53
    Pedersen FB, Ryttov N, Deleuran P, Dragsholt C, Kildeberg P. Acetate versus lactate in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Nephron 1985;39:558.
  • 54
    Brimble KS, Walker M, Margetts PJ, Kundhal KK, Rabbat CG. Meta-analysis: peritoneal membrane transport, mortality, and technique failure in peritoneal dialysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006;17:25918.
  • 55
    Alscher DM, Pauli-Magnus C, Kirchgessner J, Kuhlmann U, Mettang T. A new lactate-based, plasticizer-free, neutral peritoneal dialysis fluid provided in a two-compartment system: effect on peripheral leukocyte function. Nephron 2000;86:629.
  • 56
    De Vriese AS, Tilton RG, Mortier S, Lameire NH. Myofibroblast transdifferentiation of mesothelial cells is mediated by RAGE and contributes to peritoneal fibrosis in uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006;21:254955.
  • 57
    Ksiazek K, Passos JF, Olijslagers S, Von Zglinicki T. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a possible cause of accelerated senescence of mesothelial cells exposed to high glucose. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008;366:7939.
  • 58
    Aguilera A, Yáñez-Mo M, Selgas R, Sánchez-Madrid F, López-Cabrera M. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition as a triggering factor of peritoneal membrane fibrosis and angiogenesis in peritoneal dialysis patients. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2005;6:2628.
  • 59
    Wang T, Chen YG, Ye RG, Li SL, Li HQ, Chen YX. Effect of glucose on TGF-beta 1 expression in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Adv Perit Dial 1995;11:710.
  • 60
    Axelsson J, Carrero JJ, Avesani CM, Heimbürger O, Lindholm B, Stenvinkel P. Adipokine signaling in the peritoneal dialysis patient. Contrib Nephrol 2006;150:16673.
  • 61
    Braide M, Haraldsson B, Persson U. Citrate supplementation of PD fluid: effects on net ultrafiltration and clearance of small solutes in single dwells. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009;24:28692.
  • 62
    De Fijter CW, Oe LP, Heezius EC, Donker AJ, Verbrugh HA. Low-calcium peritoneal dialysis fluid should not impact peritonitis rates in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 1996;27:40915.
  • 63
    Van Bronswijk H, Verbrugh HA, Heezius HC, Van Der Meulen J, Oe PL, Verhoef J. Dialysis fluids and local host resistance in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1988;7:36873.
  • 64
    Szczylik C, Panasiuk E, Urbanowska E, Ratajczak MZ, Wańkowicz Z. Effect of hemodialysis fluids with different pH values and buffer types used in peritoneal dialysis on the phagocyte system in the peritoneal cavity. The experimental part. Pol Arch Med Wewn 1990;84:13843.
  • 65
    Yahyapour N, Eriksson C, Kjellstrand P, Wieslander A, Nygren H. Protection by glutathione of neutrophils against the toxic effects of peritoneal dialysis fluid. Toxicol in Vitro 2001;15:65561.
  • 66
    Fischer FP, Machleidt C, Rettenmeier AW, Kuhlmann U, Mettang T. Plasticizers and inhibition of leukocyte function in vitro. Perit Dial Int 1998;18:6205.
  • 67
    Mortier S, Lameire NH, De Vriese AS. The effects of peritoneal dialysis solutions on peritoneal host defense. Perit Dial Int 2004;24:12338.
  • 68
    Jones S, Holmes CJ, Mackenzie RK et al. Continuous dialysis with bicarbonate/lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids results in a long-term improvement in ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13(Suppl. 1):S97103.
  • 69
    Liberek T, Topley N, Jörres A et al. Peritoneal dialysis fluid inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte respiratory burst activation is related to the lowering of intracellular pH. Nephron 1993;65:2605.
  • 70
    Jones S, Holmes CJ, Krediet RT et al.; Bicarbonate/Lactate Study Group. Bicarbonate/lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solution increases cancer antigen 125 and decreases hyaluronic acid levels. Kidney Int 2001;59:152938.
  • 71
    Brunkhorst R, Mahiout A. Pyruvate neutralizes peritoneal dialysate cytotoxicity: maintained integrity and proliferation of cultured human mesothelial cells. Kidney Int 1995;48:17781.
  • 72
    Mahiout A, Matata BM, Brunkhorst R. Effect of glucose and pyruvate in acidic and non-acidic peritoneal dialysis fluids on leukocytes cell functions. Kidney Int 1997;51:8607.
  • 73
    Wu YT, Wu ZL, Jiang XF, Li S, Zhou FQ. Pyruvate preserves neutrophilic superoxide production in acidic, high glucose-enriched peritoneal dialysis solutions. Artif Organs 2003;27:27681.
  • 74
    Wu YT, Wu ZL, Jiang XF, Li S, Zhou FQ. Pyruvate improves neutrophilic nitric oxide generation in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Artif Organs 2005;29:97680.
  • 75
    Boubekeur S, Bunoust O, Camougrand N, Castroviejo M, Rigoulet M, Guérin B. A mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 1999;274:210448.
  • 76
    Díaz-Ruiz R, Avéret N, Araiza D et al. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is regulated by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A possible role in Crabtree effect induction? J Biol Chem 2008;283:2694855.
  • 77
    Davies SE, Brindle KM. Effects of overexpression of phosphofructokinase on glycolysis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochemistry 1992;31:472935.
  • 78
    Van Westrhenen R, Vlijm A, Hiralall JK, Krediet RT. Experimental study on long-term exposure to a biocompatible, hypertonic, pyruvate-buffered dialysis solution. Perit Dial Int 2008;28(Suppl. 5):S437.
  • 79
    McIntyre CW. Update on peritoneal dialysis solutions. Kidney Int 2007;71:48690.
  • 80
    Fusshoeller A, Plail M, Grabensee B, Plum J. Biocompatibility pattern of a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid in APD: a prospective, randomized study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004;19:21016.
  • 81
    Montenegro J, Saracho R, Gallardo I, Martínez I, Muñoz R, Quintanilla N. Use of pure bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid reduces the incidence of CAPD peritonitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007;22:17038.
  • 82
    Fusshoeller A, Baehr J, Grabensee B, Plum J. Biocompatibility of a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PD fluid tested with a double-chamber cell culture system. Perit Dial Int 2005;25:38793.
  • 83
    Mactier RA, Sprosen TS, Gokal R et al. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain. Kidney Int 1998;53:10617.
  • 84
    Mortier S, Faict D, Gericke M, Lameire N, De Vriese A. Effects of new peritoneal dialysis solutions on leukocyte recruitment in the rat peritoneal membrane. Nephron Exp Nephrol 2005;101:e13945.
  • 85
    Otte K, Gonzalez MT, Bajo MA et al. Clinical experience with a new bicarbonate (25 mmol/L)/lactate (10 mmol/L) peritoneal dialysis solution. Perit Dial Int 2003;23:13845.
  • 86
    Tranaeus A. A long-term study of a bicarbonate/lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solution—clinical benefits. The Bicarbonate/Lactate Study Group. Perit Dial Int 2000;20:51623.
  • 87
    Li FK, Chan LY, Woo JC et al. A 3-year, prospective, randomized, controlled study on amino acid dialysate in patients on CAPD. Am J Kidney Dis 2003;42:17383.
  • 88
    García-López E, Pawlaczyk K, Anderstam B et al. Icodextrin metabolism and alpha-amylase activity in nonuremic rats undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2007;27:41523.
  • 89
    Vychytil A, Remón C, Michel C et al.; Extraneal Peritonitis Study Group. Icodextrin does not impact infectious and culture-negative peritonitis rates in peritoneal dialysis patients: a 2-year multicentre, comparative, prospective cohort study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008;23:371119.
  • 90
    Davies SJ, Phillips L, Griffiths AM, Russell LH, Naish PF, Russell GI. What really happens to people on long-term peritoneal dialysis? Kidney Int 1998;54:220717.
  • 91
    Vargha R, Endemann M, Kratochwill K et al. Ex vivo reversal of in vivo transdifferentiation in mesothelial cells grown from peritoneal dialysate effluents. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006;21:29437.
  • 92
    Riesenhuber A, Kasper DC, Vargha R, Endemann M, Aufricht C. Quercetin protects human mesothelial cells against exposure to peritoneal dialysis fluid. Pediatr Nephrol 2007;22:12058.
  • 93
    Sonveaux P, Végran F, Schroeder T et al. Targeting lactate-fueled respiration selectively kills hypoxic tumor cells in mice. J Clin Invest 2008;118:393042.
  • 94
    Srisawang P, Chatsudthipong A, Chatsudthipong V. Modulation of succinate transport in Hep G2 cell line by PKC. Biochim Biophys Acta 2007;1768:137888.
  • 95
    Margetts PJ, Bonniaud P, Liu L et al. Transient overexpression of TGF-β1 induces epithelial mesenchymal transition in the rodent peritoneum. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005;16:42536.
  • 96
    Cina D, Patel P, Bethune JC et al. Peritoneal morphological and functional changes associated with platelet-derived growth factor B. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009;24:44857.
  • 97
    Margetts PJ, Kolb M, Galt T, Hoff CM, Shockley TR, Gauldie J. Gene transfer of transforming growth factor-beta1 to the rat peritoneum: effects on membrane function. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001;12:202939) and transfection with VEGF receptor gene can attenuate the fibrosis.
  • 98
    Motomura Y, Kanbayashi H, Khan WI et al. The gene transfer of soluble VEGF type I receptor (Flt-1) attenuates peritoneal fibrosis formation in mice but not soluble TGF-beta type II receptor gene transfer. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2005;288:G14350.