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- PATHOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF HEMODIALYSIS VASCULAR ACCESS STENOSIS
- NOVEL THERAPIES FOR HD VASCULAR ACCESS DYSFUNCTION
- PREVENTIVE DETECTION OF HEMODIALYSIS VASCULAR ACCESS DYSFUNCTION
Hemodialysis vascular access complications are one of the main causes associated with an increase in morbidity and hospitalization in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The most common cause of vascular access dysfunction is venous stenosis as a result of venous neointimal hyperplasia within the peri-anastomotic region (arteriovenous [AV] fistula) or at the graft-vein anastomosis. There have been few studies regarding effective therapeutic interventions for HD vascular dysfunction at the present time, despite the magnitude of the clinical problem. This review will focus initially on the pathology and pathogenesis of HD vascular access dysfunction in the setting of both native AV fistula and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft, then experimental and clinical therapies that could potentially be used in the setting of HD vascular access dysfunction.