Effect of chitosan on barred garfish (Hemiramphus far) surimi gel was studied in the presence of EDTA and microbial transglutaminase (MTGase). An increase in breaking force of surimi gels added with 1.0% prawn shell chitosan indicated the gel enhancing effect of chitosan on the heat-induced gelation of fish myofibrillar proteins. However, gel-forming ability of surimi containing chitosan was inhibited in the presence of EDTA, especially at higher concentration. Therefore, the enhancing effect of chitosan was possibly mediated through the action of endogenous transglutaminase (TGase) during setting, resulting in the formation of protein-protein and protein-chitosan conjugates. In general, addition of MTGase remarkably increased both breaking force and deformation of surimi gel (P<0.05). However, enhancing effect of MTGase was retarded in the presence of chitosan, resulting in lower magnitude of breaking force and deformation (P<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy showed that chitosan particles were uniformly dispersed in the gel matrix. A tightly associated gel network was formed in surimi containing MTGase, whereas a large number of voids were noted in gels with EDTA. These results suggest that chitosan acted as a surimi gel enhancer in combination with endogenous TGase in fish muscle, but hindered gel formation in the presence of MTGase.