VARIATIONS IN ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION DURING MATURATION OF CORIANDER (CORIANDRUM SATIVUM L.) FRUITS

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

The composition of volatile components of the essential oils extracted from fruits of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) at four stages of maturity was studied by gas chromatography–flame ionization detector and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Essential oil yields showed marked increase during maturation process and 41 compounds were identified. Linalool was the main compound in all ripening stage amounting from 36.69 to 72.35%. Geranyl acetate (35.17%), β-caryophyllene (3.47%) and borneol (3.26%) were the main compounds at the first stage of maturity (immature fruits). At the second stage, geranyl acetate (8.21%), camphor (4.01%) and menthol (2.96%) were reported as the main constituents. In the third stage, geranyl acetate (20.66%), α-humulene (5.44%) and limonene (1.68%) were the main compounds. At the final stage of maturity (mature fruits), essential oil consist mainly on geranyl acetate (1.49%) and borneol (0.97%) in addition to linalool (72.35%). Additionally, accumulation of monoterpene alcohols was observed during maturation process of coriander fruit.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

The chemical composition of the essential oil of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits is characterized by the occurrence of numerous components with great economical values. The oxygenated monoterpene and linalool were the most used ingredient in the cosmetic, perfume and food industries. On the other hand, the increasing market demands of the oxygenated components, widely present in this oil make it in the first rank of natural product. The formers were only obtained from the mature fruits. In this context, knowledge of their evolution during maturation process of the fruits seems to be a helpful tool for a better use of this economical potential.

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