The essential oil (10 µg/well) of Zanthoxylum piperitum exerted inhibitory activity on the growth of all foodborne pathogens by the agar well diffusion susceptibility assays. Limonene and α-pinene exhibited the potent antibacterial activity on all foodborne pathogens tested, and specially α-pinene among test materials had the strongest antibacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of Z. piperitum essential oil was investigated to be 1.25 µg/mL, similar for all test foodborne pathogens, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values (2.5 µg/mL) of Z. piperitum essential oil indicated potent activity for killing Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. The MBCs were found to be lower on Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (MBC = 10 µg/mL) than that of Salmonella choleraesuis, Salmonella enterica and Vibrio vulnificus (MBC = 20 µg/mL). At 4-h exposure to Z. piperitum essential oil, all bacteria were inhibited to over 60% for the growth of cells, and also after 8-h exposure, showed the inhibition of growth to almost complete.