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ABSTRACT

Groundnut oil (GNO) was modified to contain equal proportions of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids by blending with linseed oil. Blended oil (BLE) was subjected to interesterification reaction using immobilized lipase to prepare transesterified oil (TRA). A structured lipid (STR) was also prepared by acidolysis reaction using GNO and omega-3 fatty acid concentrates from linseed oil. These oils were then fed to rats for a period of 60 days. A reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol level by 26 and 23% and a reduction in serum triglyceride concentration by 18.9 and 17.6% were observed in rats given TRA and STR, respectively, as compared with rats fed with GNO. Rats fed with BLE and interesterified oils showed incorporation of α-linolenic acid and an increase in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in serum and liver lipids. These modified oils could be used for enriching Indian diets with omega-3 fatty acids.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

There is a realization that dietary fat should contain balanced amount of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. The oils used in Indian cooking generally contains high amount of omega-6 but not omega-3 fatty acids. The present investigation was undertaken to develop oil that can provide equal amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids by the blending process. The fatty acids in blended oils were randomized through lipase catalyzed acidolysis and transesterification reaction. These modified oils significantly reduced the serum and liver lipids when fed to rats. The modified oils also showed altered physical properties. This study therefore showed that it is possible to restructure the edible oils through biotechnological approaches to get the desired fatty acid composition needed for better nutrition and required physical properties in oils.