Oxidative stress induced by free radicals is the main cause of many human diseases. Plant-derived antioxidant supplements can counter oxidative damage in cells. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of water extracts from dried seeds of Benincasa hispida (B. hispida) on antioxidant activity and how this related to total contents of phenolics and flavonoids in vitro. The levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were 81.3 ± 1.4 µg gallic acid /g and 486.8 ± 4.1 µg catechin/g dry mass, respectively. B. hispida showed DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl hydrate), ABTS (1, 2,2′-azinobis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum inhibition of 79.8 ± 0.2%, 82.3 ± 1.9% and 95.5 ± 0.8%, respectively. Inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and nitrite scavenging activity were maximum 73.2 ± 1.0% and 73.6 ± 1.3% at 6 days and 1-h incubation time, respectively. Our data suggest that the dried seeds from B. hispida could be used as a source of natural antioxidants in the food industry.