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ABSTRACT

The fatty acid (FA ) composition and the trans FA (TFA) content of Turkish shortenings were determined by capillary gas–liquid chromatography. The saturated FA, monounsaturated FA and polyunsaturated FA contents were within the ranges of 27.4–48.8, 33.8–56.7 and 8.4–35.3% of total FA, respectively. The total TFA ranged from 2.7 to 23.9% of total FA. The total trans C18:1 acid was the major TFA in all the analyzed brands, representing 82.3–94.5% of total TFA. The total trans C18:2 acid varied from 0.2 to 2.9% of total FA, while the total trans C18:3 acid was only found at very low levels (0.1% of total FA) in the samples of two brands. It is clear from the results that partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with high TFA content are still the major raw materials used in the production of Turkish shortenings.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

The fatty acid (FA) composition of the shortenings, with emphasis on trans FA (TFA), was studied. It is important to reduce the amounts of dietary TFA because of their deleterious effects on human health, mainly on the cardiovascular system. As demonstrated in the present investigation, nevertheless, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with high TFA content are still the major raw materials used for shortening production. On the other hand, reducing the total TFA content in the shortenings leads to an increase in saturated FA content. It is important to consider the data obtained in the industrial applications in order to improve the FA profile of the shortenings.