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Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. REFERENCES

ABSTRACT

Paste samples were prepared by mixing 1:1 (w/w) proportion of ginger and garlic along with sodium chloride (1%). The pH of the paste was adjusted to 4.0, 4.5 and 5.4 by the addition of citric acid. Xanthan gum (2 g/L) and sodium benzoate (0.2 g/L) were added to the paste and then filled in retort pouches. The filled pouches were subjected to thermal processing at 85C with a holding time of 2 and 5 min at 80C at the centre of the paste. The color values a, and b (green and yellow) decreased, whereas the L (lightness) values increased with decrease in pH. Paste behaved like a non-Newtonian fluid, and exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Physicochemical and microbial properties did not show significant changes during storage. This study showed that ginger–garlic paste prepared in retort pouches is convenient because of its lighter weight, faster heating leading to better quality in terms of taste, color, and also environmentally acceptable.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

Ginger and garlic have been considered as important traditional herbal medicines due to their disease prevention effects. Ginger–garlic paste is a viscous product retaining the strong aroma and flavor of the raw materials, namely, fresh ginger and garlic. Paste is mainly used as a spice in culinary preparations for imparting a characteristic fresh ginger–garlic flavor. The product is generally creamy white in color and is microbiologically stable and free from pathogenic bacteria. It is a ready to use preparation that can be used in place of fresh ginger in homes, restaurants and institutional catering. Although, few studies have been conducted on the physicochemical characteristics of ginger and garlic pastes, no information is available on combination of ginger–garlic paste in retort pouches. The development of new packing (retort pouches) for ginger–garlic with good nutritional and functional properties (such as the one proposed in this study) may be of interest in order to diversify the market supply. Therefore, retort pouch because of its lighter weight, and faster heating leads to better quality in terms of uniform cooking, taste and color and also it is environmentally acceptable.


INTRODUCTION

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. REFERENCES

Ginger, botanically known as Zingiber officinale Rosc., belongs to the family Zingiberaceae and originated in Southeast Asia (Purseglove et al. 1981). Ginger is one of the principle spices in India and produces 30% of global share now leads in global production replacing China (∼20.5%) followed by Indonesia (∼12.7%), Nepal (∼11.5%) and Nigeria (∼10%). Gingerols are the major pungent components of the fresh ginger while during dehydration, shogaols are formed during extended storage (Pruthi 1998; Wohlmuth et al. 2005). Thermal degradation of gingerols to gingerone, shogaols and related compounds was demonstrated (Zhang et al. 1994; Jolad et al. 2005).

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) belongs to Alliacea family and is the native of Central Asia (Purseglove et al. 1981). The genus Allium contains large amount of sulphur compound, which is primarily responsible for its biological and medicinal properties (Augusti 1996). China is the largest producer of garlic accounting for 77% of world output, India (4.1%), South Korea (2%), followed by Russia (1.6%) and the United States (1.4%) (Peter 1996). Fresh garlic is characterized by having a distinct aromatic odor, which is seldom carried over to processed garlic (Pezzutti and Crapiste 1997). Quality of garlic products is evaluated on the basis of their sensory characteristics, mainly color, pH, acidity and flavor intensity or pungency (Garcia et al. 1999). By the action of enzyme, allinase, allyl-S-cysteine sulfoxide is converted to diallyl thisulfinates and finally disproportionately to disulfides and thiosulfinates (Carson 1967).

Retort technology has been developed and perfected for high-speed commercial application. Retort packaging has evolved from mostly aluminium foil structure to sophisticated multilayer, high barrier laminate package, because food packaged in the retort pouches tastes much better than canned products. Food packed in a conventional can must be cooked approximately twice as long as food contained in a retort pouch. Retort packages have a thin profile and a high ratio of surface area to volume. Retort time is reduced by 30–50% in a flexible pouch. Retort pouches have solved all challenges regarding package such as pouch integrity, product compatibility and durability (Gary Bell 1990). Therefore retort pouch market drives to replace cans and glass jars and it is environmentally acceptable. These pouches can withstand retorting conditions for low acid foods. Shorter the retort time, the product will be compact with high quality and is also competent energy saver.

Commercial preparations of spice mix formulations are available in the market, which vary widely in their composition, quality and shelf life (Modi et al. 2006). New research will undoubtedly reveal new values of this paste; until now only a few studies have been conducted on the rheological properties of ginger paste, garlic paste, as well as garlic and onion paste related to processing conditions (Baranowski 1985; Lukes 1986; Ahmed et al. 2002; Ahmed and Shivhare 2002; Ahmed 2004). The flow properties of paste and puree are essential for the design and evaluation of food processing equipment (Saravacos 1970; Toledo 1997; Constenla and Lozano 2005; Oliveira et al. 2010) standardization of formulations and processes. Color measurement is the simplest instrumental method proved to be valuable in describing discoloration and providing useful information for quality control of food products (Garza et al. 1999; Maskan 2001). Although, few studies have been conducted on the physicochemical characteristics of ginger and garlic paste individually, no information is available on mixed ginger–garlic paste in retort pouches. Therefore, the main objective of the work was to determine the effect of processing conditions such as pH, and additives on physicochemical characteristics of ginger–garlic paste to produce acceptable, shelf stable product that can retain the delicate spice odor of fresh ginger and garlic.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. REFERENCES

Preparation of Ginger Paste

Fresh ginger rhizomes were procured from a well-established indigenous ginger supplier. The rhizomes were broken into pieces to expose the crevices and then washed in running water to remove the adhering mud. Again the cleaned rhizomes were scraped with a knife to remove dirt as well as spoiled portion. Ginger rhizomes were soaked in potassium metabisulphate solution (1 g/L) for 12 h and washed thoroughly; rhizomes were peeled using a vegetable peeler. The peeled rhizomes were passed through a hammer mill fitted with 30 mesh (500 µm) to get a fine paste.

Preparation of Garlic Paste

Garlic bulbs were subjected to mild pressure by hand to separate the cloves. Cloves were dried in a tray drier at 40 ± 1C for 30 min. to facilitate peeling. Peeling was done manually. After peeling, cloves were dipped in hot water followed by grinding in a laboratory grinder fitted with 30 mm mesh to get a fine paste, which was used as the raw material for preparation of ginger–garlic paste.

Preparation of Ginger–Garlic Paste

A mixed paste of ginger and garlic was prepared by mixing them in equal proportion (1:1 ratio) by weight and passed through colloidal mill to obtain the product with uniform consistency. The ginger–garlic paste was stabilized by addition of sodium chloride (10 g/L) plus xanthan gum (0.2 % w/w). Roughly 24 kg of pastes were prepared by blending 12 batches of 2 kg each (Fig. 1). Initial paste had a pH of 5.6 to serve as a control. The pH of the paste was adjusted to 4.0 and 4.5 by adding citric acid (25% w/v) solution.

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Figure 1. SCHEDULE OF GINGER–GARLIC PASTE PREPARATION

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Sodium benzoate at a level of 200 ppm was added to the paste and hot filled in retort pouches, made by 12 µm (polyethylene terephthalate [PET]), 12 µm aluminium foil (Al), 15 µm nylon and 75 µm cast polypropylene (CPP) supplied by M/s. Pradeep laminates, Pune, India. Then the pouches were sealed using heavy duty impulse sealer. These sealed samples were arranged in a rack and then placed in the steam – air retort supplied by M/s. Alpha Steri-Tech, Bangalore, India. The initial product temperature at the time of filling into the retort pouch was 65–75C. The heat penetration test was also carried out using “T” type thermocouple in the retort to ensure that the product reached the processing temperature of 85C. Sealed pouches were thermally processed until the product attained a temperature of 85C, and were held at that temperature for 2 and 5 min. Afterwards, these were cooled down to 35C and stored at ambient temperature. Samples were taken out after 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of storage at 25 ± 5C and analyzed for their physicochemical and microbial quality.

Titratable Acidity and pH

Titratable acidity in the processed paste was measured in terms of citric acid following the method described by Wang et al. (1995). For measuring titratable acidity, 5 g paste were diluted with 95 mL distilled water making the volume to 100 mL, then filtered through Whatman no. 41 filter paper and titrated against 0.1 N NaOH to pH 8 using phenolphthalein indicator. Acidity was expressed as percent citric acid by weight.

The paste sample (5 g) was diluted with 45 mL distilled water, and pH was measured with glass electrode (EUTECH Instruments, Selangor, Malaysia). Sodium chloride was determined by titration with silver nitrate (Ranganna 1986).

Total Solids

Total soluble solids (°Brix) were determined with a digital bench top Abbe Refractometer at 20C (Atago Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). To determine the total soluble solids, the paste was dried under vacuum at 70C to constant weight. The dried samples were allowed to cool in desiccators for 30 min and then weighed (AOAC 1995).

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Color Measurement

Color measurement was done by the method of Hunt (1991). Ginger–garlic paste color was measured and compared using a Hunter colorimeter model “Lab scan XE” (Hunter Associates Laboratory, Reston, VA) using universal software, based on three color coordinates namely L, a, and b. The instrument is calibrated using a standard white (L = 90.70, a = −1.08. b = 0.65) and blank reference tile under illuminated conditions such as “C” illumination and via angle 2°. The color values given by L, a, b is generally expressed as total color of the sample. “L” represents the lightness index, “a” represents red-green, whereas “b” represents yellow-blue color components.

Volatile Oil Content

Volatile oil was extracted using Clevenger's distillation or hydrodistillation. About 250 g of ginger–garlic paste were weighed in a 2500 mL round bottom flask and adequate amount of water was added. The distillation was carried out for 4–5 h for isolation of volatile oil. The oil was measured and percent volatile oil was calculated using:

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Rheological Properties of Paste

Flow properties (shear stress, shear rate and apparent viscosity) of the ginger–garlic paste were determined by employing a viscometer (model # VT 550, Haake, Karlsruhe, Germany) with a coaxial cylinder attachment. The paste was placed in a graduated beaker with flat bottom. The SV-2 spindle was selected for the sample. The rheological parameters for ginger–garlic paste were studied at the temperature of 30 ± 1C. Shear rate was been increased up to 200/s in 3 min. Apparent viscosity was obtained by dividing the shear stress by shear rate. The moisture content of this paste was 72.5 %. The well-known Herschel–Bulkley model was used to fit the shear stress (τ) and shear rate data (Eq. 1).

  • image(1)

Here, γ is the shear rate (s−1), τ is the shear stress (Pa), K is the consistency index (Pa·sn), n is the flow behavior index (dimensionless) and τ0 is the yield stress (Pa). The extent of fit was obtained by calculating the goodness of fit (r2) between data sets of shear rate and shear stress. The rheological parameters (τ0, K, n) were computed by using the software supplied by the viscometer manufacturer.

Microbiological Analysis

Enumeration of coliforms, mesophilic aerobes and yeasts and molds were done by pour plate and spread plate method following the procedure of the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications (ICMSF 1992). Violet red bile agar for coliform bacteria, plate count agar (PCA) for mesophilic aerobes and potato dextrose agar (PDA) for yeast and molds procured from Himedia, India were used. Ten grams of ginger garlic paste sample were weighed in duplicates into 90 mL of 0.1% peptone water aseptically, homogenized and serial dilution was carried out. One milliliter of the appropriate dilution of the sample was taken in sterile Petri plates and 15 mL of respective agar maintained at 45C were poured into plates and allowed to solidify. Set plates were incubated at 37C for 48 h and colony count was taken after 24–48 h of incubation for bacteria. The potato dextrose plates for yeasts and molds were incubated at 27C for 3–4 days and colony count was recorded. All tests were carried out in duplicate and the average mean values are reported.

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analysis of the data obtained for each treatment was carried out by analysis of variance followed by Duncan's new multiple range test (Duncan 1955) to found out differences between treatments at the probability level of P < 0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. REFERENCES

Physicochemical Characteristics

The moisture and volatile oil contents in fresh and processed ginger–garlic paste determined and results are presented in Table 1. The highest moisture content was found in fresh ginger (83.1%) followed by fresh ginger–garlic paste (75.1%). The volatile oil contents of fresh ginger, fresh garlic and ginger–garlic paste were 0.62, 0.11 and 0.37%, respectively. Thermally processed (2 min) ginger–garlic paste showed 72.5% moisture and 0.24% volatile oil. The volatile oil loss was observed with increasing thermal processing. In the present study, the moisture and volatile oil contents were found to vary among the treatments. It was observed that there were significant (P < 0.05) differences between pastes obtained from thermally processed ginger–garlic paste with duration and control pastes with regard to physicochemical characteristics. Ginger–garlic paste can be classified under the category of minimally processed foods, which are products that have the attributes of convenience and very little alteration in quality from the basic ingredient. The addition of salt would preserve the sample. The paste needs to be given some treatment to improve its stability and quality during storage. It is necessary to apply preservation treatments on the assumption that their effects are synergistic and the rate of degradation is minimized. Spoilage in the ginger and garlic paste may result in the degradation of the physical characteristics like color, texture, flavor or aroma as well as microbial degradation. Similarly, the addition of xanthan gum into paste overcomes the water formation/separation from the paste during storage.

Table 1. MOISTURE AND VOLATILE OIL IN GINGER, GARLIC AND GINGER–GARLIC PASTE
SamplesMoisture (%)Volatile oil (as is basis %)
  1. Mean values followed by different superscript letters in a column differ significantly (P < 0.05).

Ginger paste83.12 ± 0.61a0.62 ± 0.005a
Garlic paste63.04 ± 0.38e0.11 ± 0.005e
Ginger–garlic paste75.08 ± 0.35b0.37 ± 0.020b
Processed ginger–garlic paste (holding time 2 min.)72.50 ± 0.66c0.24 ± 0.015c
Processed ginger–garlic paste (holding time 5 min.)71.70 ± 0.26d0.18 ± 0.020d

The initial pH of the paste was around 5.4 at which level microbial spoilage will be rapid. Therefore, lowering of the pH to 4 to 4.5 by addition of an acidulant such as citric acid (25% solution) would help in reducing the spoilage. This would impart slight acidic or sour taste to the products, but would not affect to any describe level the eating quality of the food product to which this paste is added. In the present study, pH was slightly increased with increasing processing time. The titratable acidity and total soluble solids varied depending on pH conditions with different processing durations (Table 2). Ahmed and Shivhare (2001) reported similar observations for garlic paste. It has been reported that citric acid acts as an antioxidant and an acidified food (pH < 4.6) requires pasteurization (Baranowski 1985; Garcia et al. 1999).

Table 2. TITRATABLE ACIDITY, pH AND TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS IN PROCESSED GINGER–GARLIC PASTE
Initial pH of the pasteHolding time (min.)pHTA (%)TSS (%)
  1. Mean values followed by different superscript letters in a column differ significantly (P < 0.05).

  2. TA, titratable acidity; TSS, total soluble solids.

4.024.16 ± 0.02c1.53 ± 0.02a19.13 ± 0.03a
4.054.18 ± 0.02c1.50 ± 0.02a18.05 ± 0.04b
4.524.51 ± 0.05b1.52 ± 0.02a17.25 ± 0.03c
4.554.62 ± 0.02b1.65 ± 0.03b16.98 ± 0.07c
5.425.36 ± 0.01a0.44 ± 0.02c13.43 ± 0.05d
5.455.45 ± 0.02a0.46 ± 0.03c13.26 ± 0.14d

The Hunter color (L, a, b) values of fresh ginger–garlic paste were 53.8, 3.0 and 21.7, respectively. The color values a and b (green and yellow) decreased, whereas the L (lightness) values increased with decrease in pH (Table 3). Slight decrease in green color was observed during addition of salt whereas the addition of citric acid alone substantially increased the greening of ginger–garlic paste. The Hunter color value of the paste containing both sodium chloride and citric acid was −1.3. Hence, the acidic condition of paste considerably favored the formation of green pigment. Lukes (1986), Rejano et al. (1997) and Ahmed et al. (2001) have reported similar observations. TSS, sodium chloride, titratable acidity and pH of ginger paste did not change significantly (P > 0.05) during storage (data not shown).

Table 3. EFFECT OF pH ON HUNTER COLOR VALUES ON GINGER–GARLIC PASTE
Sample pHLab
  1. Mean values followed by different superscript letters in a column differ significantly (P < 0.05).

4.061.68±1.11a−1.36±0.19b20.43±0.77a
4.561.20±1.27b−1.34±0.11b20.66±0.33a
5.453.83±0.99c3.00±0.14a21.76±0.33b

A plot of shear rate versus shear stress yielded a nonlinear curve indicating that the apparent viscosity decreased with increase in the rate of shear (Fig. 2).The goodness of fit (r2) values for Heschel–Bulkley model is high (r2 = 0.982) indicating the suitability of this model to predict the flow characteristics of paste; shear thinning has also been observed, which is common for many food batters and dispersions. The flow behavior index (n) of ginger–garlic paste of the Herschel–Bulkley model is 0.251 indicating a highly non-Newtonian system as it deviates widely from a Newtonian fluid having n = 1. The yield stress (Pa), consistency index (Pa·sn) and flow behavior index (dimensionless) values of ginger–garlic paste derived from the Herschel–Bulkley model are shown in Table 4.

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Figure 2. RHEOGRAM OF GINGER–GARLIC PASTE

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Table 4. HERSCHEL–BULKLEY PARAMETERS FOR GINGER–GARLIC PASTE (30 ± 10C)
Yield stress (τ0[Pa])Consistency index K (Pa·sn)Flow behavior index, nGoodness of fit r2
  1. Mean values of five readings.

2.30415.0200.2510.982

Retort Pouches

Retort pouches are basically heat resistant plastic laminates having different multilayer structures like PET/Al.Foil/Ny/CPP, PET/EVOH/Ny/CPP, PET/SiO2 on PET/Ny/CPP, PET/Al2O3 on PET/Ny/CPP and PET/PVDC on PET/ Ny/CPP. These are used for processing low acid food products whose pH is less than 4.5. In the present study we have used retort pouches of PET/Al. Foil/Ny /CPP structure withstands process temperature of up to 122C and also has zero permeability for oxygen and water. Because of the thin profile of retort pouches, the quality attributes of the product are of superior rating when compared with the same product packed and processed in tin plate cans and glass bottles. The aluminum foil laminate used in this study was intact after thermal processing (no wrinkles and delamination was found). The heat seal was also intact and no leakage was observed.

Microbiological Quality

In the present study microbiological result showed that all samples were sanitarily appropriate for human consumption, as the level of microorganisms present in ginger–garlic processed paste was below the recommended level (APHA 2001). Initially, total plate count (TPC) in fresh ginger–garlic paste was 2 × 102 colony-forming unit (cfu)/g, whereas the coliform and yeast and mold counts were below 10 and 100 cfu/g, respectively. Thermal processing of paste at 85C for 2 and 5 min. reduced TPC to 65 while coliforms, yeast and mold were found to be nil. Addition of sodium benzoate (200 ppm) helped in controlling microbial load completely (Table 5).

Table 5. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF GINGER–GARLIC PASTE
pHDuration (min)TPC (cfu/g)Yeast and mold (per gram)Coliforms (per gram)
With preserv.Without preserv.With preserv.Without preserv.With preserv.Without preserv.
  1. Mean values followed by different superscript letters in a column differ significantly (P < 0.05).

  2. TPC, total plate count.

4.02026 ± 2.6b0000
4.05022 ± 2.5a0000
4.52033 ± 2.5b00300
4.55031 ± 3.6a0000
5.42065 ± 30b00200
5.45052 ± 3.5a00200

In control (pH 5.4) sample the TPC increased from 65 to 200 cfu/g, coliform was nil and yeast and mold counts increased from 0 to 25 cfu/g during 6 months storage at 25 ± 5C (Data not shown). The presence of bacteria of public health significance was typically low in the product and was considerably lower than the prescribed count (Pimm 1994). It can therefore be inferred that prepared ginger–garlic paste in retort pouches stored more than 6 months was microbiologically safe. The product was packed in retort pouches made by 12 µm PET, 12 µm Al, 15 µm nylon, and 75 µm CPP is the most commonly used in retort pouches and is the only one used indigenously at present (Vijayalakshmi et al. 2003). Baranowski (1985) and Giridhar et al. (1996) recommended a process temperature of 80C for ginger–garlic paste with a pH of approximately 4.0. The combination of antioxidant stabilizer and preservative was very important for the preparation of a high-quality ginger–garlic paste.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. REFERENCES

Results demonstrate that retort pouches have solved all challenges regarding pouch integrity, product compatibility and durability. High quality paste could be prepared by mixing ginger and garlic in equal proportion with added sodium chloride (10 g/L), xanthan gum (2 g/L), sodium benzoate (0.2 g/L) and hot filling in retort process followed by thermally processing at 85C with holding time of 2 min. The paste thus produced is acceptable, and is shelf stable, which retains the delicate spice odor of fresh ginger and garlic. Therefore retort pouch market drives because of its lighter weight, and faster heating, which lead to better quality in terms of taste and color, and it is environmentally acceptable.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. REFERENCES

We thank Dr. V. Prakash, Director, CFTRI, Mysore, India, for his keen interest in this study and the facilities provided. The financial support from CSIR, New Delhi, is gratefully acknowledged.

REFERENCES

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  2. Abstract
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. MATERIALS AND METHODS
  5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  6. CONCLUSIONS
  7. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  8. REFERENCES
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