Common buckwheat (Fagopyrium esculentum Moench) was used to substitute 15% of wheat flour to make husked and unhusked buckwheat breads. Volatile compounds and taste components in buckwheat breads were analyzed and compared with those in white bread. Both buckwheat breads contained more sugars and had higher sugar contents than white bread. Both buckwheat breads contained more total free amino acids (86.36–87.73 mg/g) than white bread (73.90 mg/g). Contents of flavor 5′-nucleotides were higher in both buckwheat breads. Both buckwheat breads had higher umami intensities than white bread. Three breads had different profiles of volatile compounds, and total volatile contents in buckwheat breads (3564.36–4951.39 µg/g) were 2- to 3-folds higher than that in white bread (1,706.46 µg/g). In addition, buckwheat breads possessed a more characteristic aroma than white bread. Overall, buckwheat could be incorporated into bread and provide buckwheat bread with more sugars, a stronger umami taste and a more characteristic aroma.