PHYSICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COOKIES MADE WITH ADDED DEFATTED MAIZE GERM FLOUR
Article first published online: 25 JAN 2010
© 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Food Quality
Volume 33, Issue 1, pages 72–84, February 2010
How to Cite
NASIR, M., SIDDIQ, M., RAVI, R., HARTE, J.B., DOLAN, K.D. and BUTT, M.S. (2010), PHYSICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS AND SENSORY EVALUATION OF COOKIES MADE WITH ADDED DEFATTED MAIZE GERM FLOUR. Journal of Food Quality, 33: 72–84. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4557.2009.00291.x
- Issue published online: 25 JAN 2010
- Article first published online: 25 JAN 2010
- Received for Publication March 31, 2008Accepted for Publication November 3, 2008
Defatted maize germ (DMG) was blended with wheat flour for making cookies. DMG flour at 5, 10, 15, 20 or 25% was used to partially replace wheat flour in cookie formulation, and cookies thus made were evaluated for physical characteristics and sensory quality by a small semi-trained panel and a 75-member consumer panel. Proximate analysis of DMG flour showed a composition of 27.6% crude protein, 13.0% crude fiber and 7.5% ash contents. The force required for breaking cookies increased with DMG flour addition. Based on preliminary evaluation of cookies made with all five DMG flour levels by the small panel, three treatments (5%, 10% and 15% DMG flour fortification) were selected for cookies sensory analysis by a consumer panel. On a 9-point hedonic scale, the highest overall acceptability score of 6.6 was obtained with 5% fortification, which was similar to control (6.7). All other treatments, though significantly different than the control, had an overall acceptability score of >5. These results demonstrate that cookies made with up of 15% DMG flour exhibited sensory scores within an acceptable range, as none were≤5 (neither like, nor dislike) that was deemed as a limit of marketability.
Defatted maize germ (DMG), a by-product of the maize milling industry, is a nutrient-dense and relatively low-cost product. In a separate study in our laboratory, the DMG flour was shown to possess excellent functional properties, such as bulk density, water- and oil-absorption capacities, and dough textural properties. The DMG flour addition to different food systems can greatly enhance the nutritional status, especially protein and crude fiber content, without compromising consumer acceptance. The results of the present study can also serve as a valuable resource to further explore the utilization of DMG as a flour extender in marketing of other bakery products – bread, cakes, muffins, to name a few – of acceptable quality.