CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, RADICAL SCAVENGING, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF ZATARIA MULTIFLORA BIOSS ESSENTIAL OIL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT
Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012
© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Food Safety
Volume 32, Issue 3, pages 326–332, August 2012
How to Cite
MAHAMMADI PURFARD, A. and KAVOOSI, G. (2012), CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, RADICAL SCAVENGING, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF ZATARIA MULTIFLORA BIOSS ESSENTIAL OIL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT. Journal of Food Safety, 32: 326–332. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4565.2012.00384.x
- Issue published online: 9 AUG 2012
- Article first published online: 22 JUN 2012
- Received for Publication February 28, 2012; Accepted for Publication May 22, 2012
The composition, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, hydrogen peroxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances scavenging, antibacterial and antifungal activities of aqueous extract and essential oil from Zataria multiflora was examined. Carvacrol (29.489%), thymol (25.701%), p-cymene (11.247%), linalool (9.363%) and γ-terpinene (8.054%) were detected as the main components of the oil. The inhibitory concentrations for total radical scavenging activities were between 1.92–3.15 and 2.46–4.58 µg/mL of aqueous extract and essential oil, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration for Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermi, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were 2.65 ± 0.7, 2.72 ± 0.8, 2.85 ± 0.5, 3.02 ± 0.8, 3.53 ± 1, 3.65 ± 0.9, 2.2 ± 0.5 and 2.8 ± 0.8 µg/mL of essential oil. However, aqueous extract cannot inhibit all of the bacteria and fungi tested. Thus, Z. multiflora essential oil has antioxidant and antimicrobial activity and can be used in the therapy of oxidative damage and in the therapy of infective diseases and can be used as a tea or additive in foods and traditional remedies for the treatment of infectious diseases.
Oxidative stress-related and infective diseases are one of the most common health problems in the worldwide population. A large portion of the world's population currently uses traditional medicines and herbal therapy, which involves the use of the aqueous extract of a plant in the form of an herbal tea. Essential oil derived from herbal medicines that have been known for their biological activities for many decades and should not be toxic to man and could replace chemical antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal agents. This study clearly demonstrates the potential of essential oil from Zataria multiflora as antioxidant against reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the potential of essential oil from Z. multiflora as antimicrobial against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermi, Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The chemical composition of essential oil was identified. Thus, identification of such compounds also helps to discover of new antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal agents.