HOW TO ESTIMATE AND USE THE VARIANCE OF d’ FROM DIFFERENCE TESTS

Authors


  • The authors would like to thank Dr. Kenneth Mullen for participating in the discussion on the draft of this paper and Hong Chow for the computation of the tables of B values. Thanks also to an anonymous reviewer for valuable comments on the paper.

ABSTRACT

d′ is an estimate of δ, a measure of the degree of sensory difference between two products, that can be obtained easily using tables, from the proportion of difference tests performed correctly. Tables of δ are available for the 2-AFC, 3-AFC, triangular and duo-trio tests. Tables for calculating the variance of d′ for these tests are provided in this paper. They can be used for comparison of d's, especially for those obtained from different difference tests. A simple procedure is described here for computing values for the variance of d′. Having obtained the variance, confidence intervals for d′ can be obtained, tests of significance for d′ can be made as well as tests of whether two or more d's are significantly different. The formula and tables for the number of judgments required for the estimation of δ are given also in this paper.

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