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Keywords:

  • biscuit dough;
  • bread dough;
  • bun dough;
  • cell opening;
  • dough expansion;
  • dough rheology;
  • dynamic shear;
  • flooded parallel plate geometry;
  • normal force;
  • scanning electron microscopy

ABSTRACT

The dynamic shear modulus (elastic and viscous modulus) development of dough during baking was studied. Flooded parallel plate geometry was used to monitor the rheological changes of commercially available canned doughs (bread dough, bun dough and biscuit dough). The normal force exerted on the upper plate by the expanding dough was measured to study the cell-opening event. The dough-baking process was simulated in a rheometer oven. The morphology of baked dough was studied using a scanning electron microscope to elucidate the effect of ingredients and process parameters on the properties of the final baked product. Three stages of modulus development were observed during the baking process: bubble growth and packing, rapid expansion/starch gelatinization and final curing. The cell opening coincided with the sudden rise in modulus caused by starch gelatinization. The rate at which starch gelatinization takes place controls the temperature of the cell opening. The type and concentration of various ingredients have a greater effect on the modulus and on the cell opening than the heating rates. Frequency dependence was observed during baking, but the effect on modulus development diminished at higher frequencies.