• gums;
  • protein gels;
  • rheology;
  • texture


Large deformation rheological tests were employed to determine the textural differences in heat-induced gel systems. Three different large deformation rheological methods (viscosity index and apparent elasticity, texture profile analysis (TPA) and torsional fracture) were employed to study the dependence of the ion type on the textural properties of heat-induced mixed protein–gum gels. Protein–gum mixed solutions were prepared with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or egg white albumin (EWA) (20% w/v) with κ-carrageenan (KCG), gellan (GLN) or xanthan gums (XNT) (0.5% w/v) at 0.1 M sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl) or no added salt. Despite inherent differences in protein type, the main effect on the textural properties evaluated was for the kind of salt added, since potassium ions, with a strong influence on KCG and GLN gelation, affected the parameters related to the structure or hardness of the samples. There was no significant effect on parameters associated with sample ductility or elasticity. GLN formed stronger gels than KCG, whereas XNT did not perform as well in gel formation since it does not contribute to protein matrix formation. The results indicated that potassium may be substituted for sodium ions at low ionic strengths in foods where the incorporation of KCG or GLN helps to improve texture and related features.