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In this study the effect of salt, water and temperature on dough rheology was modeled. Surface response methodology (D-Optimal mode) was used in order to quantify and estimate any nonlinearity in the relationships between the parameters under study. Each variable had five levels: salt (0, 1, 2, 3, 4%), water (50, 56, 62, 68, 74%), temperature (20, 25, 30 35, 40C). Temperature, added water and salt level all had significant effects on consistency, hydration and total energy as measured by a farinograph. Addition of salt caused a decrease in consistency and total energy but increased the hydration time in particular at low water levels. The effect of salt on hydration was related to its competition with flour in water absorption. The effect of added water on consistency, hydration and total energy was negative. Added water softens the dough and decreases the hydration time and the energy required for mixing. Temperature increase had a negative effect on consistency, hydration time and total energy. Salt reduction affects the mixing process of the ingredients of dough formulation. In total, the effect of salt was low compared with temperature and added water. Using the models obtained and reported in this research, the effect of dough can be compensated by other parameters such as temperature and added water level. The models presented in this article enable the reader to play with the parameters quantitatively.


One of the ways of solving the technological problems of reduced-salt dough and bread is to change the temperature and added water level of wheat flour dough. Using the equations presented in this article, it is possible to calculate the salt effect on consistency, hydration time and total energy of a dough formulation at a known temperature and added water level, e.g., if the salt level of a dough formulation changes from 2 to 1%, the changes required to other parameters (temperature and added water) to compensate the effect of salt can be obtained. This can have practical applications in the design of bread-making equipments and in solving the technological problems of low-salt breads.