INFLUENCE OF GREEN GRAM FLOUR (PHASEOLUS AUREUS) ON THE RHEOLOGY, MICROSTRUCTURE AND QUALITY OF COOKIES
Article first published online: 27 JUN 2012
© 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Journal of Texture Studies
Volume 43, Issue 5, pages 350–360, October 2012
How to Cite
RAJIV, J., LOBO, S., JYOTHI LAKSHMI, A. and VENKATESWARA RAO, G. (2012), INFLUENCE OF GREEN GRAM FLOUR (PHASEOLUS AUREUS) ON THE RHEOLOGY, MICROSTRUCTURE AND QUALITY OF COOKIES. Journal of Texture Studies, 43: 350–360. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4603.2012.00346.x
- Issue published online: 17 SEP 2012
- Article first published online: 27 JUN 2012
- Accepted for Publication December 22, 2011
- green gram flour;
- in vitro protein digestibility;
- scanning electron microscopy;
- wheat flour
Green gram flour (GGF) was used to substitute wheat flour at 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50% levels to enrich nutritional quality of cookies. The farinograph water absorption increased while peak viscosity, dough elasticity and extensibility decreased with the increasing level of GGF. The spread ratio of the cookies made with 10–50% GGF ranged from 8.80 to 7.40. Cookies with 50% GGF had hard texture and were unacceptable. 40% GGF was optimum in cookies. The protein matrix was disrupted in the microstructure of cookies when GGF was used. Emulsifier sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL) brought about a significant improvement in the overall quality of cookies made with 40% GGF. The in vitro protein digestibility of cookies with 40% GGF and SSL was 60%. Incorporation of GGF to cookies at 40% level increased protein content by 1.25 times, iron by 1.6 times, calcium and zinc by 2 times and total dietary fiber by 2.3 times than the control.
Legumes are added to bakery products to improve the nutritional quality. Legumes are rich in proteins, dietary fiber, complex carbohydrates, resistant starch, vitamins and minerals. This practice also improves the amino acid balance and increases the protein content of the bakery products made from the blended flours. This research article discusses the effect of replacement of wheat flour with different levels of green gram flour (GGF) and its influence on the dough rheological properties and the use of additives to improve the quality of cookies made using GGF. This information will be useful to the bakery industry for production of the cookies with improved nutritional quality.