‘That Tiny, Stratospheric Apex That Owns Most of the World’– Exploring Geographies of the Super-Rich
Article first published online: 19 DEC 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Geographical Research © 2011 Institute of Australian Geographers
Volume 50, Issue 1, pages 75–88, February 2012
How to Cite
HAY, I. and MULLER, S. (2012), ‘That Tiny, Stratospheric Apex That Owns Most of the World’– Exploring Geographies of the Super-Rich. Geographical Research, 50: 75–88. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-5871.2011.00739.x
- Issue published online: 20 FEB 2012
- Article first published online: 19 DEC 2011
- Received 19 December 2010; Revised 14 November 2011; Accepted 23 November 2011
- ABC Radio National, 2004: Chuck Feeney: giving while living. Retrieved: 12 March 2008 from <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/chuck-feeney-giving-while-living/3375332>.
- 2005: The real story of housing prices in Australia from 1970 to 2003. The Australian Economic Review 38, 265–281. and ,
- ABS, 2010: Building Approvals, Australia, Feb 2010. Cat no. 8731.0.
- 2006: The super rich: Britain's billionaires. Independent.co.uk. 17 December 2006 ed. and ,
- 1989: Class hegemony and political finance: presidential campaign contributions of wealthy capitalist families. American Sociological Review 54, 275–287. and ,
- American Express, 2006a: ‘The Connoisseur’ Emerges as the New Persona of the Affluent. White Paper on Changing Lifestyle Expectations of the Affluent in India. Gurgaon, June, American Express International.
- American Express, 2006b: Fusion of Changing Economic & Social Factors Fuels the New Mindset: I've Made It! White Paper on Changing Lifestyle Expectations of the Affluent in India. Gurgaon, September, American Express International.
- American Express, 2006c: The New Ritual of Luxury. White Paper on Changing Lifestyle Expectations of the Affluent in India. Gurgaon, March, American Express International.
- 1992: Neo-Marshallian nodes in global networks. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 16, 571–587. and ,
- 2009: Top incomes in the long run of history. National Bureau of Economic Research. Working paper 15408. Retrieved: 18 May 2010 from <http://www.nber.org/papers/w15408>. , and ,
- 1997: Restructuring and spatial polarization in cities. Progress in Human Geography 21, 251–262. ,
- 2010: Gated Communities: Social Sustainability in Contemporary and Historical Gated Developments. Earthscan, London. and (eds),
- 2007: Deer Hunting with Jesus: Dispatches from America's Class War. Scribe, Melbourne. ,
- 2007: Researching the Very Wealthy: Results from a Feasibility Study. National Centre for Social Research, London. , , , and ,
- 2001: Community: Seeking Safety in an Insecure World. Polity, Cambridge. ,
- 2004: Getting away with it? Exposing the geographies of the super-rich. Geoforum 35, 401–407. , and ,
- 1999: Fortress America. Gated Communities in the United States. The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. and ,
- 1980: The enduring affluent suburb. Landscape 24, 33–41. ,
- 2003: Living in the bubble: gentrification and its ‘others’ in North London. Urban Studies 40, 2469–2486. ,
- 2006: Super-gentrification in Barnsbury, London: globalization and gentrifying global elites at the neighbourhood level. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 31, 467–487. and ,
- 2000: City of Walls: Crime Segregation and Citizenship in Sao Paulo. University of California Press, Berkeley. ,
- Capgemini and Merrill Lynch, 2010: State of the world's wealth. Retrieved: 3 November 2011 from <http://www.capgemini.com/insights-and-resources/by-publication/world-wealth-report-2010/>.
- Capgemini and Merrill Lynch, 2011: World Wealth Report 2011. Retrieved: 1 November 2011 from <http://www.capgemini.com/insights-and-resources/by-publication/world-wealth-report-2011/?ftcnt=10120>.
- City-data.com, 2010: 333109 Zip Code Detailed Profile.
- 2002: Gated communities in Latin America mega-cities: case studies in Brazil and Argentina. Environment and Planning B 29, 355–370. and ,
- 2007: Evil Paradises: Dreamworlds of Neoliberalism. The Free Press, New York. and (eds),
- 2004: Methodological challenges posed in studying an elite in the field. Area 36, 262–269. ,
- 2010a: Reich ist nicht vermögend (Rich is not wealthible). Soziologie Heute 2, 6–9. ,
- 2010b: Sind Reiche glücklicher? (Are the rich happier?). Interview with Rheinische Post, 21 September 2010. ,
- 1998: Rethinking ethnic concentration: the case of Cabramatta, Sydney. Urban Studies 35, 503–527. ,
- 2001: How Aga louts won the battle for rural England. New Statesman. 24 September 2001 ed. ,
- 2007a: Gates studies the rich. WSJ.com. 31 October 2007 ed. ,
- 2007b: Richistan. Crown Publishers, New York. ,
- 1999: Luxury Fever: Money and Happiness in an Era of Excess. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ,
- 2005: The income gap grows. The Philadephia Inquirer. Philadephia. ,
- 2007: Uncommon wealth. Financial Times. London, 18. ,
- 1991: Toronto's financial district. The Canadian Geographer, 35. ,
- 2007: Producing elite localities: the rise of gated communities in Istanbul. Urban Studies 44, 771–798. ,
- 2009: Geographies of tourism: critical research on capitalism and local livelihoods. Progress in Human Geography 33, 527–534. ,
- 1999: Superwealth in Australia: entrepreneurs, accumulation and the capitalist class. Journal of Sociology 35, 169–182. ,
- 2002: Secrets of the Super Rich. Harper Collins Publishers Pty Ltd, Sydney. ,
- 1987: Visitors, tourists and outsiders in a Cornish town. In Bouquet, M. and Winter, M. (eds) Who from Their Labours Rest? Conflict and Practice in Rural Tourism. Avebury, Aldershot, 65–82. ,
- 2007: Downtrodden workers dirty on the filthy rich of Fantasy Island. The Australian . ,
- 2007: Biographer discusses Chuck Feeney, Cornell benefactor and ‘the good American’. Cornell University. Retrieved: 12 March 2008 from <http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Oct07/Conor.OClery.html>. ,
- 2011: Strategies for conducting elite interviews. Qualitative Research 11, 431–441. ,
- 1997: How did the wealthiest New Zealanders get so rich? New Zealand Economic Papers 31, 35–47. and ,
- 2002: Globalisation, poverty and inequality: friends, foes or strangers? 2002 Economic and Social Outook Conference. Melbourne, Australia. ,
- Her Majesty's Revenue and Customs (UK), 2011: Entrepreneurs' Relief, Helpsheet 275 Tax year 6 April 2010 to 5 April 2011. Retrieved: 14 December 2011 from <http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/helpsheets/hs275.pdf>.
- 1995: Privilege, Power and Place. The Geography of the American Upper Class. Rowman and Littlefield, Lanham, MD. ,
- 1976: The Social Limits to Growth. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. ,
- Hudson Institute, 2009: Philanthrocapitalism: savior or emperor? Retrieved 14 December 2011 from <http://www.hudson.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=6184>.
- 2010: The social barriers to sustainability. Retrieved: 20 April 2010 from <http://www.dustormagic.net/EqualityWhen/SocialBarriersToSustainability.html>. ,
- 2003: The Rich List: Wealth and Enterprise in New Zealand 1820–2003. Reed Books, Auckland. ,
- 2006: Restoring the tradition of rigor and relevance to political science. PSOnline January, 27–31. and ,
- 2007: Why we need foreign billionaires. The Observer . ,
- 2008: ‘Generation Nowhere’: rethinking youth through the lens of unemployed young men. Progress in Human Geography 32, 739–758. ,
- 2003: Perfectly Legal: The Covert Campaign to Rig Our Tax System to Benefit the Super Rich – and Cheat Everybody Else. Penguin, New York. ,
- 2003: Super-gentrification: the Case of Brooklyn Heights, New York City. Urban Studies 40, 2487–2509. ,
- 2005: Of the few, by the few, for the few. In Lardner, J. and Smith, D.A. (eds) Inequality Matters. The Growing Economic Divide in America and Its Poisonous Consequences. The New Press, New York, 115–125. ,
- 2004: Transnational spaces and everyday lives. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 29, 151–164. ,
- 2004: Getting rich people to give. Alliance: for philanthropy and social investment worldwide . and ,
- 1968: The Rich and the Super-Rich. A Study in the Power of Money Today. Bantam Books, New York. ,
- 2008: Gated enclaves soar above Indian slums. Newser . ,
- 2007: Tax savings: only the rich need apply. The Observer . ,
- 2002: Geographies of welfare and social exclusion: dimensions, consequences and methods. Progress in Human Geography 26, 65–75. ,
- 2009: The truth about interviewing elites. Politics 29, 209–217. ,
- 1998: Middle class mobility, rural communities and the politics of exclusion. In Boyle, P. and Halfacree, K. (eds) Migration into Rural Areas. Wiley, Chichester, 186–199. and ,
- 2001: Political consequences of the new inequality. International Studies Quarterly 45, 347–356. ,
- 2004: The super-rich in global perspective: a quantitative analysis of the Forbes list of billionaires. Applied Economics Letters 11, 793–796. ,
- 2003: One life to give. Irish America . ,
- OECD, 2008: Growing Unequal? Income Distribution in OECD Countries. OECD, Paris.
- 1999: Flexible Citizenship: The Cultural Logic of Transnationality. Duke University Press, Durham, NC. ,
- 2002: The super rich are out of sight. Common Dreams News Center. 27 December. ,
- 2008: Global ruling class: billionaires and how they ‘make it’. Journal of Contemporary Asia 38, 319–329. ,
- 2007: An island of moguls is latest front in union battle. The New York Times Magazine . ,
- 2011: Living it up: super-rich enclave and transnational elite urbanism in Singapore. Geoforum 42, 382–393. ,
- Reuters, 2010: Over 100 RBS bankers get £1 mln bonus. Retrieved 14 December 2011 from <http://uk.reuters.com/article/2010/02/25/uk-rbs-bonuses-idUKLDE61O2BX20100225>.
- 2010: Reflections on interviewing elites. Area 42, 70–75. ,
- 2006: New landscapes of gated communities: Australia's Sovereign Islands. Landscape Research 31, 309–317. ,
- 2004: The All-Time Australian 200 Rich List. Allen and Unwin, Sydney. ,
- 2009: Striking it richer: the evolution of top incomes in the United States. Retrieved: 18 May 2010 from <http://www.econ.berkeley.edu/~saez/>. ,
- 1997: Major donors, major motives: the people and purposes behind major gifts. In Burlingame, D.F. and Hodge, J.H. (eds) Developing Major Gifts. Jossey-Bass Inc. Publishers, San Francisco, CA, 85–112. ,
- 2005: Today's wealth holder and tomorrow's giving: the new dynamics of wealth and philanthropy. Journal of Gift Planning 9, 15–37. ,
- 2011: Treasure Islands. Tax Havens and the Men Who Stole the World. Random House, London. ,
- 1996: The growing gap between rich and and poor countires: a proposed explanation. World Development 24, 1379–1384. ,
- 1981: No Homes for Locals? Gower, Aldershot. ,
- 2007: Enclave space: a new metageography of development? Area 39, 331–339. ,
- 1994: How did the wealthiest Australians get so rich? Review of Income and Wealth 40, 191–204. and ,
- 1999: Mars, king of candies dies at 95. Retrieved: 12 March 2008 from <http://www.reviewjournal.com/cgi-bin/printable.cgi?/lvrj_home/1999/Jul-03-Sat-1999/news/11493900.html>. ,
- 2006: Problematising power relations in ‘elite’ interviews. Geoforum 37, 643–653. ,
- 2010: The diverse geographies of rural gentrification in Scotland. Journal of Rural Studies 26, 31–40. ,
- 2007: The new philanthropists. Telegraph. London. ,
- 2006: Capital gains from the super-rich. Spectator . ,
- 2010: Enclosures, enclaves and entrapment. Sociological Inquiry 80, 241–260. ,
- 2010: Consuming the planet to excess. Theory, Culture and Society 27, 191–212. ,
- 1995: Landscape and city life: four ecologies of residence in the San Francisco Bay Area. Ecumene 2, 33–64. ,
- 1999: The Secret Life of Money: Exposing the Private Parts of Personal Money. Allen & Unwin, Sydney. ,
- 2010: Rich, Rural and Rooted? Neoliberalism, Neopaternalism and the New Transnational Geographies of the Rural Super-Rich. Association of American Geographers, Washington, DC. ,
- 2011: The local politics of the global countryside boosterism, aspirational ruralism and the constested reconstitution of Queenstown, New Zealand. GeoJournal 76, 365–381. ,
- World Bank, 2011: World Development Indicators 2011.
- 2007: Concept of offshore financial centers: in search of an operational definition. IMF Working Paper 07/87. April, International Monetary Fund. ,
- Z/Yen, 2010: Welcome to Z/Yen. Retrieved 15 December 2010 from <http://www.zyen.com/>.