Contribution of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
The Bouwer and Rice Slug Test — An Updatea
Article first published online: 4 AUG 2005
Volume 27, Issue 3, pages 304–309, May 1989
How to Cite
Bouwer, H. (1989), The Bouwer and Rice Slug Test — An Update. Groundwater, 27: 304–309. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6584.1989.tb00453.x
Herman Bouwer received B.S. and M.S. degrees in 1949 and 1952 in Drainage, Reclamation, and Irrigation from the National Agricultural University at Wageningen, The Netherlands, and a Ph.D. degree in 1955 in Soil and Water Management from Cornell University, New York. He was associated with the Agricultural Engineering Department of Auburn University, Alabama, from 1955 to 1959, before joining the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, where he became Director in 1972. In 1970, he also was appointed Adjunct Professor at Arizona State University in Tempe where he taught Ground-Water Hydrology in the Geology and Civil Engineering Departments. He is also an Adjunct Professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson.
Discussion open until November 1, 1989.
- Issue published online: 4 AUG 2005
- Article first published online: 4 AUG 2005
- Received December 1986, revised August 1988, accepted September 1988.
The Bouwer and Rice slug test was developed to measure aquifer hydraulic conductivity around boreholes (production, monitoring, or test wells). The wells can be partially penetrating and partially screened, perforated, or otherwise open. The slug test can be based on quickly with- drawing a volume of water from the well and measuring the subsequent rate of rise of the water level in the well, or by adding a slug of water and measuring the subsequent rate of fall of the water level in the well. While originally developed for unconfined aquifers, the method can also be used for confined or stratified aquifers if the top of the screen or perforated section is some distance below the upper confining layer. Anomalies (“double straight line effect”) sometimes observed in the measured rate of rise of the water level in the well are attributed to drainage of a gravel pack or developed zone around the well following lowering of the water level. The effect of this drainage can be eliminated by ignoring the early data points and using the second straight line portion in the data plot for calculation of hydraulic conductivity. The method is applicable to any diameter and depth of the borehole, provided that the dimensions of the system are covered by the ranges for which the geometry factor Re has been worked out. The smaller the diameter of the hole, however, the more vulnerable the results will be to aquifer heterogeneities and to inaccuracies in estimating effective well diameters. Computer programs for rapid processing of the field data have been developed.