MODFLOW/MT3DMS–Based Simulation of Variable-Density Ground Water Flow and Transport


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This paper presents an approach for coupling MODFLOW and MT3DMS for the simulation of variable-density ground water flow. MODFLOW routines were modified to solve a variable-density form of the ground water flow equation in which the density terms are calculated using an equation of state and the simulated MT3DMS solute concentrations. Changes to the MODFLOW and MT3DMS input files were kept to a minimum, and thus existing data files and data files created with most pre- and postprocessors can be used directly with the SEAWAT code. The approach was tested by simulating the Henry problem and two of the saltpool laboratory experiments (low- and high-density cases). For the Henry problem, the simulated results compared well with the steady-state semianalytic solution and also the transient isochlor movement as simulated by a finite-element model. For the saltpool problem, the simulated breakthrough curves compared better with the laboratory measurements for the low-density case than for the high-density case but showed good agreement with the measured salinity isosurfaces for both cases. Results from the test cases presented here indicate that the MODFLOW/MT3DMS approach provides accurate solutions for problems involving variable-density ground water flow and solute transport.