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Figure S1. Well cap equipped with tubing and sampling valves. Dedicated tubing was used for collecting vapor samples from the well upper headspace and water-vapor interface.

Figure S2. Well cap and sampling tubing with 60-mL syringes used for vapor sampling of the well upper headspace and water-vapor interface.

Figure S3. Vapor samples from the well upper headspace and water-vapor interface were evacuated into Tedlar bags and analyzed by PID and a field GC. Separate vapor samples were also placed in Tedlar bags and sent for laboratory analysis.

Figure S4. Well assembly of the PDBs and the PVD sampler. Top PDB (PBD-INT) was submerged in the well at the water-vapor interface (i.e., just below the water table). The bottom PDB (PBD-SCR) and the PVD were placed at the depth corresponding to the well screen.

Figure S5. Well assembly of the PVD (top) and PDB (PBD-SCR, bottom) corresponding to the depth of the well screen.

Figure S6. Personnel demonstrating the well assembly of the PVD (top) and PDB (PBD-SCR, bottom). PDB installed at water-vapor interface (PDB-INT) not shown.

Figure S7. PVD sampler tested during the field study. Sampler consists of a 40-mL VOA vial wrapped in two layers of heat-sealed LDPE membrane. For installation in a monitoring well, the uncapped sampler was connected to a string via zip ties and placed at a depth corresponding to the screened interval of the well. When uncapped, vapor can diffuse through the LDPE layer to allow volatile contaminants to equilibrate between vapor and groundwater phases. Samplers are capped immediately following removal from the well, then a vapor sample is collected via syringe through the Teflon-lined septum. The sample is transferred to field analytical equipment (GC) to obtain a vapor concentration, then converted to an equivalent groundwater concentration using Henry’s Law.

Table S1. Summary of monitoring well characteristics during field program.

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